Celiac Disease

Reference work entry

Celiac disease is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of the small intestine that can develop in genetically susceptible individuals ingesting proteins in wheat (gliadin), rye (secalin), and barley (hordein), collectively called gluten. The prevalence of celiac disease in the United States and Canada is as high as 0.5–1%, similar to earlier estimates outside North America.

Synonyms and Related Disorders

Celiac sprue; Gluten sensitive enteropathy

Genetics/Basic Defects

  1. 1.
    Pathogenesis
    1. a.

      Celiac disease occurs in genetically susceptible individuals who ingest gluten, a protein found in certain grains

       
    2. b.

      Gluten causes an abnormal T cell–mediated immune response and inflammatory injury to the mucosa of the small intestine, resulting in malabsorption of nutrients in these individuals

       
    3. c.

      Gliadin fraction of gluten is mainly responsible for this intestinal damage

       
    4. d.

      Approximately 97% of individuals with celiac disease have genetic markers on chromosome 6...

Keywords

Osteoporosis Anemia Neuropathy Diarrhea Cardiomyopathy 

References

  1. Catassi, C., Ratsch, J. M., Fabiani, E., et al. (2000). Coeliac disease in the year: Exploring the iceberg. Lancet, 343, 200–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cranney, A., Zarkadas, M., Graham, I. D., et al. (2007). The Canadian celiac health survey. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 52, 1087–1095.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Farrell, R. J., & Kelly, C. P. (2002). Celiac sprue (review). The New England Journal of Medicine, 346, 180–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fersano, A., Berti, I., Gerarduzzi, T., et al. (2003). Prevalence of celiac disease in at-risk and not-at-risk groups in the United States: A large multicenter study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 163, 286–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Green, P. H., Fleischauer, A. T., Bhagat, G., et al. (2003). Risk of malignancy in patients with celiac disease. The American Journal of Medicine, 115, 191–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gudjónsdóttir, A. H., Nilsson S, Ek J., Kristiansson B., Ascher H. (2004). The risk of celiac disease in 107 families with at least two affected siblings. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 38, 338–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hill, I. D., Dirks, M. H., Liptak, G. S., et al. (2005). Guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease in children: Recommendations of the North American Society for pediatric gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 40, 1–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hill, I., Fasano, A., Schwartz, R., et al. (2000). The prevalence of celiac disease in at-risk groups of children in the United States. Journal of Pediatrics, 136, 86–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Holmes, G. K., Prior, P., Lane, M. R., et al. (1989). Malignancy in coeliac disease-effect of a gluten free diet. Gut, 30, 333–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kaukinen, K., Partanen, J., Maki, M., et al. (2002). HLA-DQ typing in the diagnosis of celiac disease. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 97, 695–699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Koning, F. (2005). Celiac disease: Caught between a rock and a hard place. Gastroenterology, 129, 1294–1301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Liu, E., Li, M., Emery, L., et al. (2007). Natural history of antibodies to deamidated gliadin peptides and transglutaminase in early childhood celiac disease. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 45, 293–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lundin, K. E. A., Scott, H., Fausa, O., et al. (1994). T cells from the small intestinal mucosa of a DR4, DQ7/DR4, DQ8 celiac disease patient preferentially recognize gliadin when presented by DQ8. Human Immunology, 41, 285–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Niveloni, S., Sugai, E., Cabanne, A., et al. (2007). Antibodies against synthetic deamidated gliadin peptides as predictors of celiac disease: prospective assessment in an adult population with a high pretest probability of disease. Clinical Chemistry, 53, 2186–2192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Poon, E., & Nixon, R. (2001). Cutaneous spectrum of coeliac disease (review). Australian Journal of Dermatology, 42, 136–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Qiao, S. W., Bergseng, E., Molberg, O., et al. (2005). Refining the rules of gliadin T cell epitope binding to the disease-associated DQ2 molecule in celiac disease: importance of proline spacing and glutamine deamidation. Journal of Immunology, 175, 254–261.Google Scholar
  17. Rashid, M., Butzner, J. D., Warren, R. (2009). Home blood testing for celiac disease. Recommendation for management. Canadian Family Physician, 55, 151–153.Google Scholar
  18. Ravikumara, M., Tuthill, D. P., & Jenkins, H. R. (2006). The changing clinical presentation of coeliac disease. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 91, 969–971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rodrigues, A. F., & Jenkins, H. R. (2008). Investigation and management of coeliac disease (review). Archives of Disease in Childhood, 93, 251–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rostom, A., Murray, J. A., & Kagnoff, M. F. (2006). American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) Institute technical review on the diagnosis and management of celiac disease. Gastroenterology, 131, 1981–2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Snyder, C. L., Young, D. O., Green, P. H. R., Taylor, A. K. T. (2008). Celiac disease. GeneReviews. Initial posting July 3, 2008. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1727/
  22. Sollid, L. M. (2002). Coeliac disease: Dissecting a complex inflammatory disorder (review). Nature Reviews Immunology, 2, 647–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sollid, L. M., & Khosla, C. (2005). Future therapeutic options for celiac disease. Nature Clinical Practice. Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 2, 140–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sollid, L. M., & Lie, B. A. (2005). Celiac disease genetics: Current concepts and practical applications. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 3, 843–851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Treem, W. R. (2004). Emerging concepts in celiac disease. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 16, 552–559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Verdu, E. E., Armstrong, D., & Murray, J. A. (2009). Between celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome: The “no man’s land” of gluten sensitivity. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 104(6), 1587–1594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Westerberg, D. P., Gill, J. M., Dave, B., et al. (2006). New strategies for diagnosis and management of celiac disease. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 106, 145–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Personalised recommendations