The use of mobile robots in service applications is steadily increasing. Most of these systems achieve locomotion using wheels. As a consequence, they are subject to differential constraints that are nonholonomic, i.e., non-integrable. This article reviews the kinematic models of wheeled robots arising from these constraints and discusses their fundamental properties and limitations from a control viewpoint. An overview of the main approaches for trajectory planning and feedback motion control is provided.
KeywordsWheeled robots Nonholonomic constraints Differential flatness Nonlinear controllability Smooth stabilizability
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