Encyclopedia of Systems and Control

2015 Edition
| Editors: John Baillieul, Tariq Samad

Active Power Control of Wind Power Plants for Grid Integration

  • Lucy Y. PaoEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-5058-9_272


Increasing penetrations of intermittent renewable energy sources, such as wind, on the utility grid have led to concerns over the reliability of the grid. One approach for improving grid reliability with increasing wind penetrations is to actively control the real power output of wind turbines and wind power plants. Providing a full range of responses requires derating wind power plants so that there is headroom to both increase and decrease power to provide grid balancing services and stabilizing responses. Initial results indicate that wind turbines may be able to provide primary frequency control and frequency regulation services more rapidly than conventional power plants.


Active power control Automatic generation control Frequency regulation Grid balancing Grid integration Primary frequency control Wind energy 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Aho J, Pao L, Buckspan A, Fleming P (2013a) An active power control system for wind turbines capable of primary and secondary frequency control for supporting grid reliability. In: Proceedings of the AIAA aerospace sciences meeting, Grapevine, Jan 2013Google Scholar
  2. Aho J, Buckspan A, Dunne F, Pao LY (2013b) Controlling wind energy for utility grid reliability. ASME Dyn Syst Control Mag 1(3):4–12Google Scholar
  3. Barthelmie RJ, Hansen K, Frandsen ST, Rathmann O, Schepers JG, Schlez W, Phillips J, Rados K, Zervos A, Politis ES, Chaviaropoulos PK (2009) Modelling and measuring flow and wind turbine wakes in large wind farms offshore. Wind Energy 12:431–444Google Scholar
  4. Buckspan A, Aho J, Fleming P, Jeong Y, Pao L (2012) Combining droop curve concepts with control systems for wind turbine active power control. In: Proceedings of the IEEE symposium power electronics and machines in wind applications, Denver, July 2012Google Scholar
  5. Buckspan A, Pao L, Aho J, Fleming P (2013) Stability analysis of a wind turbine active power control system. In: Proceedings of the American control conference, Washington, DC, June 2013, pp 1420–1425Google Scholar
  6. Callaway DS, Hiskens IA (2011) Achieving controllability of electric loads. Proc IEEE 99(1): 184–199Google Scholar
  7. Ela E, Milligan M, Kirby B (2011) Operating reserves and variable generation. Technical report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-5500-51928Google Scholar
  8. Ela E, Gevorgian V, Fleming P, Zhang YC, Singh M, Muljadi E, Scholbrock A, Aho J, Buckspan A, Pao L, Singhvi V, Tuohy A, Pourbeik P, Brooks D, Bhatt N (2014) Active power controls from wind power: bridging the gaps. Technical report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-5D00-60574, Jan 2014Google Scholar
  9. Giebel G, Brownsword R, Kariniotakis G, Denhard M, Draxl C (2011) The state-of-the-art in short-term prediction of wind power: a literature overview. Technical report, ANEMOS.plus/SafeWind, Jan 2011Google Scholar
  10. Gsanger S, Pitteloud J-D (2013) World wind energy report 2012. The World Wind Energy Association, May 2013Google Scholar
  11. Kowli AS, Meyn SP (2011) Supporting wind generation deployment with demand response. In: Proceedings of the IEEE power and energy society general meeting, Detroit, July 2011Google Scholar
  12. Miller N, Clark K, Shao M (2011) Frequency responsive wind plant controls: impacts on grid performance. In: Proceedings of the IEEE power and energy society general meeting, Detroit, July 2011Google Scholar
  13. Palensky P, Dietrich D (2011) Demand-side management: demand response, intelligent energy systems, and smart loads. IEEE Trans Ind Inform 7(3):381–388Google Scholar
  14. Pickard WF, Abbott D (eds) (2012) The intermittency challenge: massive energy storage in a sustainable future. Proc IEEE 100(2):317–321. Special issueGoogle Scholar
  15. Porté-Agel F, Wu Y-T, Chen C-H (2013) A numerical study of the effects of wind direction on turbine wakes and power losses in a large wind farm. Energies 6:5297–5313Google Scholar
  16. Rebours Y, Kirschen D, Trotignon M, Rossignol S (2007) A survey of frequency and voltage control ancillary services-part I: technical features. IEEE Trans Power Syst 22(1):350–357Google Scholar
  17. Wiser R, Bolinger M (2013) 2012 Wind technologies market report. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report, Aug 2013Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of ColoradoBoulderUSA