Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers

2014 Edition
| Editors: Thomas Hockey, Virginia Trimble, Thomas R. Williams, Katherine Bracher, Richard A. Jarrell, Jordan D. MarchéII, JoAnn Palmeri, Daniel W. E. Green

Saunders, Frederick Albert

Reference work entry

BornLondon, Ontario, Canada, 18 August 1875

DiedSouth Hadley, Massachusetts, USA, 9 June 1963

Canadian-American spectroscopist Frederick Saunders gave his name to a method, devised with  Henry Norris Russell, called Russell-Saunders coupling, used to calculate how the electrons in atoms with more than one in the outer, active shell interact to produce the emission and absorption features. It is also called L-S coupling, where L and S are symbols for the orbital and spin angular momenta of the electron ensemble.

Saunders was the son of the eminent Canadian agriculturist, William Saunders, and Sarah Robinson, both of whom emigrated from England. He married Grace Elder in 1900; they had two children, Anthony E. and Margery (Middleton). He married Margaret Tucker in 1925.

Saunders was a physics student at the University of Toronto, taking his BA in 1895. A student of  Henry Rowlandat Johns Hopkins University, Saunders took his Ph.D. there in 1899. After a brief stay at Haverford College...

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Selected Reference

  1. Olson, Harry F. (1967). “Frederick Albert Saunders.” Biographical Memoirs, National Academy of Sciences 39: 403–416.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.York UniversityTorontoCanada