Extreme Environmental Events

2011 Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers (Editor-in-Chief)

Regional Climate Models: Linking Global Climate Change to Local Impacts

  • Daniela Jacob
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-7695-6_40

Article Outline


Definition of the Subject


Basic Features and Model Characteristics



Regional Climate Change

Regional Extremes

Future Directions




Regional Climate Regional Climate Model Global Climate Model Regional Climate Change Dynamical Downscaling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.



I like to thank the REMO-grooup at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology for their enthusiastic support.


  1. 1.
    Arnell NM (1996) Global warming, river flows and water resources. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Asselin R (1972) Frequency filter for time integrations. Mon Weather Rev 100:487–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Christensen JH, Christensen OB (2004) Climate modelling: severe summer flooding in Europe. Nature 421:805–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Christensen JH, Christensen OB (2007) A summary of the PRUDENCE model projections of changes in European climate by the end of this century. Clim Chan 81(1):7–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Davies HC (1976) A latery boundary formulation for multi‐level prediction models. Quart J R Meteorol Soc 102:405–418Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dethloff K, Abegg C, Rinke A, Hebestad I, Romanov V (2001) Sensitivity of Arctic climate simulations to different boundary layer parameterizations in a regional climate model. Tellus 53(A):1–26Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dethloff K, Rinke A, Lynch A, Dorn W, Saha S, Handorf D (2008) Arctic climate change – The ACSYS decade and beyond. Chapter 8: Arctic regional climate models (in press)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Frei C, Christensen JH, Deque M, Jacob D, Jones RG, Vidale PL (2003) Daily precipitation statistics in regional climate models: Evaluation and intercomparison for the European Alps. J Geophys Res 108(D3):4124. doi: 10.1029/2002JD002287 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Giorgi F (2006) Regional climate modeling: Status and perspectives. J Phys IV France 139(2006):101–118. doi: 10.1051/jp4:2006139008 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Giorgi F, Bates GT (1989) The climatological skill of a regional model over complex terrain. Mon Weather Rev 117:2325–2347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Giorgi F, Bates GT, Niemann SJ (1993) The multi‐year surface climatology of a regional atmospheric model over the western United States. J Clim 6:75–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Giorgi F, Brodeur CS, Bates GT (1994) Regional climate change scenarios over the United States produced with a nested regional climate model. J Clim 7:375–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Giorgi F, Mearns LO, Shields C, McDaniel L (1998) Regional nested model simulations of present day and 2XCO2 climate over the Central Plains of the US. Clim Chan 40:457–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Giorgi F, Mearns LO (1999) Introduction to special section: Regional climate modelling revisited. J Geophys Res 104:6335–6352Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hagemann S, Jacob D (2007) Gradient in the climate change signal of European discharge predicted by a multi‐model ensemble. Clim Chan 81(1):309–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jacob D (2001) A note to the simulation of the annual and inter‐annual variability of the water budget over the Baltic Sea drainage basin. Meteorol Atmos Phys 77:61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jacob D, Podzun R (1997) Sensitivity studies with the regional climate model REMO. Meteorol Atmos Phys 63:119–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jacob D, Van den Hurk BJJM, Andrae U, Elgered G, Fortelius C, Graham LP, Jackson SD, Karstens U, Köpken C, Lindau R, Podzun R, Rockel B, Rubel F, Sass BH, Smith RNB, Yang X (2001) A comprehensive model inter‐comparison study investigating the water budget during the BALTEX-PIDCAP period. Meteorol Atmos Phys 77:19–43Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jacob D, Bärring L, Christensen OB, Christensen JH, Hagemann S, Hirschi M, Kjellström E, Lenderink G, Rockel B, Schär C, Seneviratne SI, Somot S, van Ulden A, van den Hurk B (2007) An inter‐comparison of regional climate models for Europe: Design of the experiments and model performance. Clim Chan 81(1):31–52Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jacob D, Göttel H, Kotlarski S, Lorenz P, Sieck K (2008) Klimaauswirkungen und Anpassung in Deutschland – Phase 1: Erstellung regionaler Klimaszenarien für Deutschland. Abschlussbericht zum UFOPLAN-Vorhaben 204 41 138, Berichtszeitraum: 1. Oktober 2004 bis 30. September 2007. Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie (MPI-M), HamburgGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jones RG, Murphy JM, Noguer M (1995) Simulations of climate change over Europe using a nested regional climate model. I: Assessment of control climate, including sensitivity to location of lateral boundaries. Quart J R Meteorol Soc 121:1413–1449Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jones RG, Murphy JM, Noguer M, Keen AB (1997) Simulation of climate change over Europe using a nested regional climate model. II: Comparison of driving and regional model responses to a doubling of carbon dioxide. Quart J R Meteorol Soc 123:265–292Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lehmann A, Lorenz P, Jacob D (2004) Modelling the exceptional Baltic Sea flow events in 2002–2003. Geophys Res Lett 31:L21308. doi: 0.1029/2004GL020830
  24. 24.
    Lorenz P, Jacob D (2005) Influence of regional scale information on the global circulation: A two‐way nesting climate simulation. Geophys Res Lett 32:L18706. doi: 0.1029/2005GL023351
  25. 25.
    Machenhauer B, Windelband M, Botzet M, Christensen JH, Déqué M, Jones RG, Ruti PM, Visconti G (1998) Validation and analysis of regional present‐day climate and climate change simulations over Europe. MPI Report No. 275. MPI, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Majewski D (1991) The Europa-Modell of the Deutscher Wetterdienst. In: ECMWF seminar on numerical methods in atmospheric models, vol 2. ECMWF, ReadingGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    McGregor JL, Katzfey JJ, Nguyen KC (1995) Seasonally varying nested climate simulations over the Australian region. 3rd Int Conf Model Glob Clim Chan Var. Hamburg, Germany, 4–8 Sept 1995Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    McGregor JL, Katzfey JJ, Nguyen KC (1999) Recent regional climate modelling experiments at CISRO. In: Ritchie H (ed) Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling. CAS/JSC Working Group on Numerical Experimentation Report 28. WMO/TD – no. 942. WMO, Geneva, pp 7.37–7.38Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nakicenovic N, Alcamo J, Davis G, de Vries B, Fenhann J, Gaffin S, Gregory K, Grübler A, Jung TY, Kram T, La Rovere EL, Michaelis L, Mori S, Morita T, Pepper W, Pitcher H, Price L, Raihi K, Roehrl A, Rogner HH, Sankovski A, Schlesinger M, Shukla P, Smith S, Swart R, van Rooijen S, Victor N, Dadi Z (2000) IPCC special report on emissions scenarios. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pitman A (2003) Review: The evolution of, and revolution in, land surface schemes designed for climate models. Int J Climatol 23:479–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rechid D, Jacob D (2006) Influence of seasonally varying vegetation on the simulated climate in Europe. Meteorol Z 15:99–116Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rinke A, Marbaix P, Dethloff K (2004) Internal variability in Arctic regional climate simulations: Case study fort he SHEBA year. Clim Res 27:197–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Roeckner E, Arpe K, Bengtsson L, Christoph M, Claussen M, Dümenil L, Esch M, Giorgetta M, Schlese U, Schulzweida U (1996) The atmospheric general simulation model ECHMA-4: Model description and simulation of present‐day climate. Report 218. Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schär C, Vidale PL, Lüthi D, Frei C, Häberli C, Liniger MA, Appenzeller C (2004) The role of increasing temperature variability in European summer heatwaves. Nature 427:332–336Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Simmons AJ, Burridge DM (1981) An energy and angular- momentum conserving vertical finite‐difference scheme and hybrid vertical coordinate. Mon Weather Rev 109:758–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniela Jacob
    • 1
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institute for MeteorologyHamburgGermany