Encyclopedia of Applied Electrochemistry

2014 Edition
| Editors: Gerhard Kreysa, Ken-ichiro Ota, Robert F. Savinell

Activated Carbons

  • Soshi Shiraishi
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-6996-5_517

Introduction

Activated carbon is a porous carbon material with developed nano-sized pores and a high specific surface area (>1,000 m2g−1). Nowadays, the technical term “nanoporous carbon” is very often used to mean “activated carbon,” but the activated carbon should be strictly defined as a porous carbon prepared by an activation process consisting of a gasification reaction to form the developed nano-sized pore structure in the carbon matrix. The activated carbons have been widely utilized as industrial materials, for example, an adsorbent, decolorizing agent, deodorant, and catalyst. The details of the preparation method, pore structure, and applications of activated carbons have been described [1]. The most significant electrochemical application of activated carbons is use as an electrode active material for an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC). This article reviews the use of activated carbons in an EDLC.

Pore Structure and Preparation

A wide variety of activated carbons with...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.
    Marsh H, Rodríguez Reinoso F (2006) Activated carbon. Elsevier, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Endo M, Kim YJ, Takeda T, Maeda T, Hayashi T, Koshiba K, Hara H, Dresselhaus MS (2001) Poly(vinylidene chloride)-based carbon as an electrode material for high power capacitors with an aqueous electrolyte. J Electrochem Soc 148:A1135–1140Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Conway BE (1999) Electrochemical supercapacitors—scientific fundamentals and technological applications. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ishimoto S, Asakawa Y, Shinya M, Naoi K (2009) Degradation responses of activated-carbon-based EDLCs for higher voltage operation and their factors. J Electrochem Soc 156:A563–A571Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ruch PW, Cericola D, Foelske A, Kötz R, Wokaun A (2010) A comparison of the aging of electrochemical double layer capacitors with acetonitrile and propylene carbonate-based electrolytes at elevated voltages. Electrochim Acta 55:2352–2357Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frackowiak E (2007) Carbon materials for supercapacitor application. Phys Chem Chem Phys 9:1774–1785Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Simon P, Burke A (2008) Nanostructured carbons: double-layer capacitance and more. Interface 17:38–43Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Inagaki M, Konno H, Tanaike O (2010) Carbon materials for electrochemical capacitors. J Power Sources 195:7880–7903Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Morita M, Watanabe S, Ishikawa M, Tamai H, Yasuda H (2001) Utilization of activated carbon fiber with mesopore structure for electric double layer capacitors. Electrochemistry 69:462–466Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shiraishi S, Kurihara H, Shi L, Nakayama T, Oya A (2002) Electric double-layer capacitance of meso/macroporous activated carbon fibers prepared by the blending method. J Electrochem Soc 149:A855–A861Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Itoi H, Nishihara H, Kogure T, Kyotani T (2011) Three-dimensionally arrayed and mutually connected 1.2-NmNanopores for high-performance electric double layer capacitor. J Am Chem Soc 133:1165–1167Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chmiola J, Yushin G, Gogotsi Y, Portet C, Simon P, Taberna PL (2006) Anomalous increase in carbon capacitance at pore sizes less than 1 nanometer. Science 313:1760–1763Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Futaba DN, Hata K, Yamada T, Hiraoka T, Hayamizu Y, Kakudake Y, Tanaike O, Hatori H, Yumura M, Iijima S (2006) Shape-engineerable and highly densely packed single-walled carbon nanotubes and their application as super-capacitor electrodes. Nature Mat 5:987–994Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Honda Y, Haramoto T, Takeshige M, Shiozaki H, Kitamura T, Yoshikawa K, Ishikawa M (2008) Performance of electric double-layer capacitor with vertically aligned MWCNT sheet electrodes prepared by transfer methodology. J Electrochem Soc 155:A930–A935Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bleda-Martínez MJ, Maciá-Agulló JA, Lozano-Castelló D, Morallón E, Cazorla-Amorós D, Linares-Solano A (2005) Role of surface chemistry on electric double layer capacitance of carbon materials. Carbon 43:2677–2684Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cazorla-Amorós D, Lozano-Castelló D, Morallón E, Linares-Solano A, Shiraishi S (2010) Measuring cycle efficiency and capacitance of chemically activated carbons in propylene carbonate. Carbon 48:1451–1456Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Frackowiak E, Lota G, Machnikowski J, Vix-Guterl C, Béguin F (2006) Optimisation of supercapacitors using carbons with controlled nanotexture and nitrogen content. Electrochim Acta 51:2209–2214Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kodama M, Yamashita J, Soneda Y, Hatori H, Kamegawa K, Moriguchi I (2006) Structure and electrochemical capacitance of nitrogen-enriched mesoporous carbon. Chem Lett 35:680–681Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hulicova-Jurcakova D, Kodama M, Shiraishi S, Hatori H, Zhu ZH, Lu GQ (2009) Nitrogen-enriched nonporous carbon electrodes with extraordinary supercapacitance. Adv Funct Mater 219:1800–1809Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shiraishi S, Kibe M, Yokoyama T, Kurihara H, Patel N, Oya A, Kaburagi Y, Hishiyama Y (2006) Electric double layer capacitance of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and B-doping effect. Appl Phys A 82:585–591Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shiraishi S (2012) Heat-treatment and nitrogen-doping of activated carbons for high voltage operation of electric double layer capacitor. Key Eng Mat 497:80–86Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Molecular ScienceFaculty of Science and Technology, Gunma UniversityKiryuJapan