Encyclopedia of Applied Electrochemistry

2014 Edition
| Editors: Gerhard Kreysa, Ken-ichiro Ota, Robert F. Savinell

Aluminum Smelter Technology

  • Geir Martin Haarberg
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-6996-5_452

Introduction

Production of primary aluminum metal is rather unique in that the principles of the electrolysis technology that were proposed and independently patented by Hall and Heroult in 1886 are essentially unchanged. Also remarkable is the fact that the electrolytic Hall-Heroult process is the only industrial production route for aluminum. Notwithstanding, great progress has taken place over more than 100 years of development. The main improvements have been related to current efficiency, electrical energy consumption, productivity, and environmental impact.

The production of primary aluminum was ∼41 million metric ton in 2010 [1]. The largest producing country was China with ∼16 million ton. After a slight decrease in the annual production in 2009 due to world financial problems, there has been a slow increase due to the importance of aluminum alloys for transportation and building materials.

Alumina is dissolved and reduced to aluminum in a molten fluoride electrolyte based on...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    Thonstad J, Fellner P, Haarberg GM, Hives J, Kvande H, Sterten Å (2001) Aluminium electrolysis. Fundamentals of the Hall-Heroult process. Aluminium-Verlag, DüsseldorfGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Solheim A, Sterten Å (1997) Activity data for the system NaF-AlF3. Proceedings of the Ninth international symposium on light metals production,Trondheim, Norway 225Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Skybakmoen E, Solheim A, Sterten Å (1997) Met Mat Trans B 28B:81–86Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sterten Å (1980) Electrochim Acta 25:1673Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thonstad J, Rolseth S (1978) Electrochim Acta 23:223–241Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jarek S, Thonstad J (1987) Light Metals 1987:399–407Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thonstad J (1964) J Electrochem Soc 111:959Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bredig MA (1964) Mixtures of metals with molten salts. In: Blander M (ed) Molten salt chemistry. Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ødegård R, Sterten Å, Thonstad J (1987) Light Metals 1987:389Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang X, Peterson RD, Richards NE (1991) Light Metals 1991:323Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rolseth S, Thonstad J (1981) On the mechanism of the reoxidation reaction in aluminum electrolysis. Light Metals 1981:289–301Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sterten ÅJ (1988) Electrochem. 18:473Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sterten Å, Solli PA, Skybakmoen E (1998) J Appl Electrochem 28:781Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sterten Å, Solli PA (1995) J Appl Electrochem 25:809Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Haarberg GM, Armoo JP, Gudbrandsen H, Skybakmoen E, Solheim A, Jentoftsen TE (2011) Current efficiency for aluminium deposition from molten cryolite-alumina electrolytes in a laboratory cell. Light Met 2011:461–463Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li J, Xu Y, Zhang H, Lai Y (2010) An inhomogeneous three-phase model for the flow in aluminium reduction cells. Int J Multiphase Flow 37:46–54. doi:10 1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2010.08009Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Johansen HG, Thonstad J, Sterten Å (1997) Light Met 1977:253–261Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Deininger L, Gerlach J (1979) Metall 33:131Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Haugland E, Haarberg GM, Thisted E, Thonstad J (2001) The behaviour of phosphorus impurities in aluminium electrolysis cells. Light Met 2001:549Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Haupin WE (1995) Principles of aluminum electrolysis. Light Met 1995:195–203Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringNorwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)TrondheimNorway