Alkaline Primary Cells
The three main primary cylindrical battery systems are based on zinc metal anode and manganese dioxide cathode but are classified by the electrolyte composition. The Leclanché cell is based on an ammonium chloride–zinc chloride (NH4Cl–ZnCl2) electrolyte. The zinc chloride cell is based on a zinc chloride (ZnCl2) electrolyte. Both are classified as generic carbon–zinc cells and differ from the alkaline cell in that the alkaline cell is based on KOH electrolyte. The common features in each are the use of zinc as the negative or anode and manganese dioxide as the positive or cathode electrodes. The two main classifications of primary alkaline batteries are (1) cylindrical and (2) coin or button cells. Coin or button cells will be discussed later.
The alkaline zinc–manganese dioxide cell was introduced in 1959 as a high-performance primary cell to replace the Leclanché (carbon–zinc) cell that was developed by Georges Leclanché in 1860 and is still the battery of choice in the...
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