Encyclopedia of Applied Electrochemistry

2014 Edition
| Editors: Gerhard Kreysa, Ken-ichiro Ota, Robert F. Savinell

Membrane Technology

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-6996-5_312

Definition

Membranes could be considered as layer structures which can separate two fluids (gas or liquid) and which have different permeabilities for these fluids or their components. Depending on structure, the membranes could be classified in dense and porous ones. According to IUPAC, the porous membranes can be distinguished into micropores (pore diameter is <2 nm), mesopores (2 nm < d < 50 nm), and macropores (d > 50 nm), respectively. The dense membranes have no open porosity and are impenetrable for particles in gas molecules.

Dense membranes can be divided into ceramic membranes, metal membranes, and liquid-immobilized membranes. These include materials which allow preferential passage of hydrogen or oxygen, in the form of either ions or atoms. Liquid-immobilized membranes consist of a porous support in which a semipermeable liquid is immobilized which fills the pores completely. Interesting examples are molten salts immobilized in porous steel or ceramic supports,...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut Ullmann
    • 1
  • Vladimir Vashook
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ulrich Guth
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.FB Chemie und LebensmittelchemieTechnische Universität DresdenDresdenGermany
  2. 2.Kurt-Schwabe-Institut für Mess- und Sensortechnik e.V. MeinsbergWaldheimGermany