Encyclopedia of Applied Electrochemistry

2014 Edition
| Editors: Gerhard Kreysa, Ken-ichiro Ota, Robert F. Savinell

Fuel Cells, Non-Precious Metal Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

  • Ulrike I. Kramm
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-6996-5_204

Introduction

Today, platinum-based catalysts are the state-of-the-art material in fuel cell applications. The costs of these catalysts, however, contribute by 33 % to the overall costs of a fuel cell stack [1]. This makes it reasonable to search for cheap alternatives, especially non-precious metal catalysts (NPMC). Some metal nitrides (Me = W, Mo) and oxynitrides (Me = Ta, Zr, Nb) are promising regarding the observed onset potentials (up to 0.8 V vs. NHE) and could be of interest for further investigation. In this respect, however, the readers are referred to the original contributions (W2N [2], Mo2N [3], ZrOxNy [4, 5, 6], TaOxNy [7], NbOxNy [8, 9]).

This essay will focus on Me–N–C catalysts that are currently the best-performing NPMC for the ORR.

Recently, researchers from INRS-EMT and LANL published impressive volumetric current densities (230 A cm−3 at 0.8 V) for μ–Fe–N–C and long-term stability for (Fe,Co)–PANI–C (PANI or polyaniline), respectively [10, 11]. Unfortunately, the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.
    James BD, Kalinoski JA, Baum KN (2010) Mass production cost estimation for direct H2 PEM fuel cell systems for automotive applications: 2010 update. WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhong H, Zhang H, Liang Y, Zhang J, Wang M, Wang X (2007) A novel non-noble electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. J Power Sources 164(2):572–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhong H, Zhang H, Liu G, Liang Y, Hu J, Yi B (2006) A novel non-noble electrocatalyst for PEM fuel cell based on molybdenum nitride. Electrochem Commun 8:707–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu G, Zhang HM, Wang MR, Zhong HX, Chen J (2007) Preparation, characterization of ZrOxNy/C and its application in PEMFC as an electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction. J Power Sources 172:503–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Doi S, Ishihara A, Mitsushima S, Kamiya N, Ota K (2007) Zirconium-based compounds for cathode of polymer electrolyte fuel cell. J Electrochem Soc 154(3):B362–B369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ohgi Y, Ishihara A, Matsuzawa K, Mitsushima S, Ota K (2010) Zirconium oxide-based compound as new cathode without platinum group metals for PEFC. J Electrochem Soc 157(6):B885–B891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ishihara A, Lee K, Doi S, Mitsushima S, Kamiya N, Hara M, Domen K, Fukuda K, Ota K (2005) Tantalum oxynitride for a novel cathode of PEFC. Electrochem Solid State Lett 8(4):A201–A203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ohnishi R, Katayama M, Takanabe K, Kubota J, Domen K (2010) Niobium-based catalysts prepared by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and arc plasma methods as non-noble metal cathode catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Electrochim Acta 55(19):5393–5400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Takagaki A, Takahashi Y, Yin F, Takanabe K, Kubota J, Domen K (2009) Highly dispersed niobium catalyst on carbon black by polymerized complex method as PEFC cathode catalyst. J Electrochem Soc 156(7):B811–B815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Proietti E, Jaouen F, Lefèvre M, Larouche N, Tian J, Herranz J, Dodelet J-P (2011) Iron-based cathode catalyst with enhanced power density in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Nat Commun 2:416–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wu G, More KL, Johnston CM, Zelenay P (2011) High-performance electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction derived from polyaniline, iron and cobalt. Science 332:443–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jaouen F, Herranz J, Lefèvre M, Dodelet J-P, Kramm UI, Herrmann I, Bogdanoff P, Maruyama J, Nagaoka T, Garsuch A, Dahn JR, Olson T, Pylypenko S, Atanassov P, Ustinov EA (2009) Cross-laboratory experimental study of non-noble-metal electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1(8):1623–1639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jaouen F, Proietti E, Lefèvre M, Chenitz R, Dodelet J-P, Wu G, Chung HT, Johnston CM, Zelenay P (2011) Recent advances in non-precious metal catalysis for oxygen-reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Energy Environ Sci 4:114–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen Z, Higgins D, Yu A, Zhang L, Zhang J (2011) A review on non-precious metal electrocatalysts for PEM fuel cells. Energy Environ Sci 4:3167–3192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Matter PH, Biddinger EJ, Ozkan US (2007) Non-precious metal oxygen reduction catalysts for PEM fuel cells. Catalysis 20:338–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dodelet J-P (2006) Oxygen reduction in PEM fuel cell conditions: heat-treated non-precious metal-N4 macrocycles and beyond. In: N4 macrocyclic metal complexes. Springer, New York, pp 83–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kramm UI, Bogdanoff P, Fiechter S (2013) Non-noble metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEM-FC). In: Encyclopedia of sustainable science and technology. Springer, New York, pp. 8265–8307Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jasinski R (1964) A new fuel cell cathode catalyst. Nature 201:1212–1213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jahnke H, Schönborn M, Zimmermann G (1976) Organic dye stuffs as catalysts for fuel cells. Topics Curr Chem 61:133–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    van Veen JAR, van Baar JF, Kroese KJ (1981) Effect of heat treatment on the performance of carbon-supported transition-metal chelates in the electrochemical reduction of oxygen. J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 77:2827–2843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    van Veen JAR, Colijn HA, van Baar JF (1988) On the effect of a heat treatment on the structure of carbon-supported metalloporphyrins and phthalocyanines. Electrochim Acta 33(6):801–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kramm UI, Abs-Wurmbach I, Herrmann-Geppert I, Radnik J, Fiechter S, Bogdanoff P (2011) Influence of the electron-density of FeN4-centers towards the catalytic activity of pyrolyzed FeTMPPCl-based ORR-electrocatalysts. J Electrochem Soc 158(1):B69–B78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Johansson LY, Larsson R (1986) Electrochemical reduction of oxygen in sulphuric acid catalyzed by porphyrin-like complexes. J Mol Catal 38:61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gupta S, Trzk D, Bae I, Aldred W, Yeager E (1989) Heat-treated polyacrylonitrile-based catalysts for oxygen electroreduction. J Appl Electrochem 19:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bogdanoff P, Herrmann I, Hilgendorff M, Dorbandt I, Fiechter S, Tributsch H (2004) Probing structural effects of pyrolysed CoTMPP-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction via new preparation strategies. J New Mater Electrochem Syst 7:85–92Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kramm UI (née Koslowski), Herrmann I, Fiechter S, Zehl G, Zizak I, Abs-Wurmbach I, Radnik J, Dorbandt I, Bogdanoff P (2009) On the influence of sulphur on the pyrolysis process of FeTMPP-Cl-based electro-catalysts with respect to oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic media. ECS Trans 25:659–670Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Herrmann I, Kramm UI, Radnik J, Fiechter S, Bogdanoff P (2009) Influence of sulfur on the pyrolysis of CoTMPP as electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction. J Electrochem Soc 156(10):B1283–B1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Herrmann I, Kramm UI, Fiechter S, Bogdanoff P (2009) Oxalate supported pyrolysis of CoTMPP as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. Electrochim Acta 54(18):4275–4287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wu G, Johnston CM, Mack NH, Artyushkova K, Ferrandon M, Nelson M, Lezama-Pacheco JS, Conradson SD, More KL, Myers DJ, Zelenay P (2011) Synthesis – structure – performance correlation for polyaniline–Me–C non-precious metal cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction in fuel cells. J Mater Chem 21:11392–11405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bouwkamp-Wijnoltz AL, Visscher W, van Veen JAR, Boellaard E, van der Kraan AM, Tang SC (2002) On active-site heterogeneity in pyrolyzed carbon-supported Iron porphyrin catalysts for the electrochemical reduction of oxygen: an in situ Mössbauer study. J Phys Chem B 106:12993–13001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kramm UI, Herranz J, Larouche N, Arruda TM, Lefèvre M, Bogdanoff P, Fiechter S (2012) Structure of the catalytic sites in Fe/N/C-catalysts for O2-reduction in PEM fuel cells. Phys Chem Chem Phys 14:11673–11688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Koslowski UI, Herrmann I, Bogdanoff P, Barkschat C, Fiechter S, Iwata N, Takahashi H, Nishikori H (2008) Evaluation and analysis of PEM-FC performance using non-platinum cathode catalysts based on pyrolysed Fe- and Co-porphyrins – influence of a secondary heat-treatment. ECS Trans 13(17):125–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Olson TS, Chapman K, Atanassov P (2008) Non-platinum cathode catalyst layer composition for single membrane electrode assembly proton exchange membrane fuel cell. J Power Density 183:557–563Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Koslowski UI, Abs-Wurmbach I, Fiechter S, Bogdanoff P (2008) Nature of the catalytic centers of porphyrin-based electrocatalysts for the ORR: a correlation of kinetic current density with the site density of Fe–N4 centers. J Phys Chem C 112(39):15356–15366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kramm UI, Herrmann-Geppert I, Bogdanoff P, Fiechter S (2011) Effect of an ammonia treatment on structure, composition, and oxygen reduction reaction activity of Fe-N-C catalysts. J Phys Chem C 115:23417–23427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jaouen F, Lefèvre M, Dodelet J-P, Cai M (2006) Heat-treated Fe/N/C catalysts for O2 electroreduction: are active sites hosted in micropores? J Phys Chem B 110:5553–5558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Charreteur F, Jaouen F, Ruggeri S, Dodelet J-P (2008) Fe/N/C non-precious catalysts for PEM fuel cells: influence of the structural parameters of pristine commercial carbon blacks on their activity for oxygen reduction. Electrochim Acta 53:2925–2938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ferrandon M, Kropf AJ, Myers DJ, Artyushkova K, Kramm U, Bogdanoff P, Wu G, Johnston CM, Zelenay P (2012) Multitechnique characterization of a polyaniline-iron-carbon oxygen reduction catalyst. J Phys Chem C 116(30):16001–16013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Herranz J, Jaouen F, Lefèvre M, Kramm UI, Proietti E, Dodelet J-P, Bogdanoff P, Fiechter S, Abs-Wurmbach I, Bertrand P, Arruda TM, Mukerjee S (2011) Unveiling N-protonation and anion-binding effects on Fe/N/C catalysts for O2 reduction in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. J Phys Chem C 115:16087–16097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tributsch H, Koslowski UI, Dorbandt I (2008) Experimental and theoretical modeling of Fe-, Co-, Cu-, Mn-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction. Electrochim Acta 53:2198–2209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kramm UI, Lefèvre M, Herrmann-Geppert I, Bogdanoff P, Dodelet J-P, Fiechter S (2012) Fe-N-C catalysts – investigating the degradation induced by PEM fuel cell vs. room temperature conditions. In: ISE conference, Prague, no 2009Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jaouen F, Dodelet J-P (2007) Average turn-over frequency of O2 electro-reduction for Fe/N/C and Co/N/C catalysts in PEFCs. Electrochim Acta 52:5975–5984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lalande G, Côte R, Guay D, Dodelet JP, Weng LT, Bertrand P (1997) Is nitrogen important in the formulation of Fe-based catalysts for oxygen reduction in solid polymer fuel cells? Electrochim Acta 42(9):1379–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lefèvre M, Proietti E, Jaouen F, Dodelet J-P (2009) Iron-based catalysts with improved oxygen reduction activity in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Science 324:71–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ettingshausen F, Weidner A, Zils S, Wolz A, Suffner J, Michel M, Roth C (2009) Alternative support materials for fuel cell catalysts. ECS Trans 25(1):1883–1892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Herrmann I, Koslowski UI, Radnik J, Fiechter S, Bogdanoff P (2008) Preparation and structural analysis of heat treated Co-and Fe-porphyrins as cathode catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. ECS Trans 13(17):143–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Technical University CottbusCottbusGermany