Encyclopedia of Immigrant Health

2012 Edition
| Editors: Sana Loue, Martha Sajatovic


  • Megan Testa
  • Todd H. Nelson
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-5659-0_670

As the largest independent state in the former Soviet Union, Russia – or the Russian Federation, as it is properly known – is the largest country in the world, at almost 6,600,000 square miles. It has a wide range of geographical features and climates. It shares borders with almost a dozen other countries, including Norway, the Baltic States (Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania), Belarus, Kazakhstan, China, and North Korea. Russia has enormous quantities of natural resources, including oil, natural gas, forests, and approximately a quarter of the world’s fresh water. Russia’s population is about 140,000,000, although it has been on the decline due to a high mortality rate, especially among males, from a variety of causes such as a high rate of alcohol abuse and tobacco use. The literacy rate in Russia is one of the best in the world, at 99.4%, and the majority of Russian citizens are urban dwellers.

The Russian Federation has struggled to transition from the centrally planned Soviet-era...

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Suggested Readings

  1. Benisovich, S. V., & King, A. C. (2003). Meaning and knowledge of health among older adult immigrants from Russia: A phenomenological study. Health Education Research, 18(2), 135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Duncan, L., & Simmons, M. (1996). Health practices among Russian and Ukrainian immigrants. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 13(2), 129–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Finckenauer, J. O., & Waring, E. J. (1998). Russian mafia in America: Immigration, culture, and crime. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Gutkovich, Z., Rosenthal, R. N., Galynker, I., Muran, C., Batchelder, S., & Itskhoki, E. (1999). Depression and demoralization among Russian-Jewish immigrants in primary care. Psychosomatics, 40(2), 117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Massey, D. S. (1995). The new immigration and ethnicity in the United States. Population and Development Review, 21(3), 631–652.Google Scholar
  6. Mroz, T. A., & Popkin, B. M. (1995). Poverty and the economic transition in the Russian Federation. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 44(1), 1–31.Google Scholar
  7. Ritsner, M., & Ponizovsky, A. (1999). Psychological distress through immigration: The two-phase temporal pattern? The International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 45(2), 125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ryan, M. (1995). Russian report: Alcoholism and rising mortality in the Russian Federation. British Medical Journal, 310(6980), 648.Google Scholar
  9. Yurchak, A. (2006). Everything was forever, until it was no more: The last Soviet generation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Zaridze, D., Brennan, P., Boreham, J., Boroda, A., Karpov, R., Lazarev, A., et al. (2009). Alcohol and cause-specific mortality in Russia: A retrospective case-control study of 48 557 adult deaths. Lancet, 373(9682), 2201–2214.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Megan Testa
    • 1
  • Todd H. Nelson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity Hospitals Case Medical CenterClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of AkronAkronUSA