Encyclopedia of Immigrant Health

2012 Edition
| Editors: Sana Loue, Martha Sajatovic

Roma

  • Bettina Rausa
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-5659-0_667

Roma, or Romani people (often referred to as “Gypsies,” a term considered to be pejorative), are considered European, but originate from the northern part of India. They migrated out of India approximately 1,000 years ago and first settled in the Balkans (Southeastern Europe), then moved to the Carpathians (Central and Eastern Europe), and from there to Greece, Finland, Russia, and into Western Europe (Spain, Portugal, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom). Now, Roma live throughout all of Europe, in Canada and the United States. In Europe alone, there are 10–12 million Roma, with the largest populations in Romania and Bulgaria; Canada reports an estimated 80,000 Roma as of 2008; and approximately one million Roma reside in the United States. It is important to note that these numbers are estimates: there is no official count of Roma anywhere they reside because Roma do not record births or deaths, they are undercounted in national census, they often do not identify themselves as...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

Suggested Readings

  1. Boika, R., Blackburn, C. M., Spencer, N. J., & Rechel, B. (2009). Access to health care for Roma children in Central and Eastern Europe: Findings from a qualitative study in Bulgaria. International Journal for Equity in Health, 8, 24. doi:10.1186//1475-9276-8-24.Google Scholar
  2. DeSoto, H., Beddies, S., & Gedeshi, I. (2005). Roma and the Egyptians in Albania: From social exclusion to social inclusion (Work Bank Working Paper No. 53). Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The World Bank. ISSN: 1726–5878.Google Scholar
  3. Michler, S. (2009). Household vulnerability estimates of Roma in Southeast Europe. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 1–5. doi:10.1093/cje/bepo060. Oxford University Press on behalf of the Cambridge Political Economy Society.Google Scholar
  4. Vivian, C., & Dundes, L. (2004). The crossroads of culture and health among the Roma (gypsies) (health policy and system). Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 36(1), 86–91.Google Scholar
  5. Walsh, C. A., Este, D., & Krieg, B. (2008). The enculturation experience of Roma refugees: A Canadian perspective. British Journal of Social Work, 38, 900–917. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bcl1369. Oxford University Press on behalf of The British Association of Social Workers.Google Scholar

Suggested Resources

  1. Amnesty International. (2008). Italy: The witch-hunt against Roma people must end. Retrieved January 6, 2010, from http://www.amnestyusa.org/print.php
  2. Dosta! Roma Campaign. (2007). Retrieved January 6, 2010, from http://www.dosta.org/en/node/34. Retrieved from Council of Europe. Retrieved January 6, 2010, from http://www.coe.int
  3. Petek, D., Pavllc, D. R., Svab, I., & Lollc, D. (2006). Attitudes of Roma toward smoking: Qualitative study in Slovenia. Croation Medical Journal, 47, 344–7. Retrieved January 6, 2010, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2080393/pdf/CroatMedJ_47_0344.pdf (accepted March 2, 2006).Google Scholar
  4. Plafker, K. (2002). The social roots of Roma health conditions. EUMAP: EU monitoring and advocacy program, a program of the Open Society Institute. Eumap.org. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from http://eumap.org/journal/features/2002/sep01/romhealth
  5. Pomykala, A., & Holt, S. (2002). Romani women – A priority for European public health policy. EU monitoring and advocacy program, a program of the Open Society Institute. Eumap.org. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from http://www.eumap.org/journal/features/2002/sep02/romwomenprior
  6. Raykova, A. (2002). Roma health concerns: The view from Bulgaria. EU monitoring and advocacy program. Open Society Institute. Eumap.org. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from http://eumap.org/journal/features/2002/sep01/bulgaroma
  7. Roberts, H. (2002). Belgrade assistance for Serbs and Roma from Kosovo. The Lancet, 359(9305), 503. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07706-1. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from www.thelancet.com.
  8. Roma people. Retrieved January 6, 2010, from http://www.mlahanas.de/Greece/History/RomaPeople.html
  9. Schaaf, M. (2002). Kosovo’s Roma: A challenge for public health. EU monitoring and advocacy program, a program of the Open Society Institute. Eumap.org. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from http://eumap.org/journal/features/2002/sept/02/romainkosovo
  10. Sepkowitz, K. (2006). Health of the world’s Roma population. The Lancet, 367(9524), 1707–1708. Retrieved January 6, 2010, from www.thelancet.com
  11. UNICEF. Romania. Under–5 Abandonment and Mortality Rates Still High in Romania. Newsletter no. 9. Retrieved January 6, 2010, from http://www.unicef.org/romania/media_2089.html
  12. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust encyclopedia. Genocide of the European Roma (Gypsies) 1939–1945. Retrieved January 6, 2010, from http://www.ushmm.org/wic/article.php?moduled=10005219

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bettina Rausa
    • 1
  1. 1.Salk Institute for Biological StudiesLa JollaUSA