Encyclopedia of Immigrant Health

2012 Edition
| Editors: Sana Loue, Martha Sajatovic


  • Sana Loue
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-5659-0_636

Although rape is defined differently across various legal jurisdictions, it is generally conceived of as any forced or coerced genital contact or sexual penetration. This would include not only vaginal contact or penetration, but also anal and oral contact or penetration. Penetration can be effectuated with a genital organ (penis), another body part such as a hand, or an object.

Although rape can be committed against males and females, it is often used as a form of gender-based violence. Amnesty International has delineated three categories of gender-based violence: family violence, that is committed against a woman or girl by a family member, including marital rape; community violence, including rape committed in the context of prostitution or trafficking and rape committed by a stranger; and state violence, which includes rape that is committed or condoned by someone working for the government, such as a police officer, prison guard, soldier, or border official.

Rape has been and...

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Suggested Readings

  1. Kennedy, M. A., & Gorzalka, B. B. (2002). Asian and Non-Asian attitudes towards rape, sexual harassment, and sexuality. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 46, 227–238.Google Scholar

Suggested Resources

  1. Human Rights Watch. (2004). Genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity: Topical digests of the case law of the ICTR and the ICTY. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2004/02/20/genocide-war-crimes-and-crimes-against-humanity
  2. Human Rights Watch. (2010). Genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity: A digest of the case law of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/01/12/genocide-war-crimes-and-crimes-against-humanity
  3. World Health Organization. Gender-based violence. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www.who.int/gender/violence/en/

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sana Loue
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsCase Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA