Encyclopedia of Immigrant Health

2012 Edition
| Editors: Sana Loue, Martha Sajatovic


  • Ryan C. W. Hall
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-5659-0_635

Radicalization, especially violent radicalization, is the process of converting an individual of normal beliefs into an individual who believes and follows an extreme ideology and feels justified in taking extreme actions, such as breaking the law, committing acts of violence or assisting in such acts, in order to obtain a goal related to their beliefs. When the term radicalization is used in the current global environment, it is usually used in the context of extreme religious beliefs (e.g., “Islamic fundamentalists/radicals”); however, an individual can also develop radical nonreligious political beliefs, as occurs in protests to G7 Economic Summits or occurred in the famous case of Patty Hearst, who was abducted by the Symbionese Liberation Army (a radical political group) and “brainwashed” into adopting their radical political beliefs and terrorist (bank robbery) tactics.

Radicalization can occur through many different pathways. As in the Patty Hearst case, an individual can be...

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Suggested Readings

  1. Crépeau, F., & Jimenez, E. (2004). Foreigners and the right to justice in the aftermath of 9/11. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 27, 609–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Hall, R. C. W., Hall, R. C. W., & Chapman, M. J. (2007). Psychiatric effects of terrorism: Medical and societal implications of recent attacks. In E. V. Linden (Ed.), Focus on terrorism (Vol. 9). New York: Nova Science. Chapter 11.Google Scholar
  3. Tansey, C. (2009). Anti-radicalization efforts within the European Union: Spain and Denmark (California thesis, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey).Google Scholar

Suggested Resources

  1. Cato. (2008). The weaponization of immigration (pp. 1–16). Washington, DC: Center for Immigration Studies. www.cis.org. Accessed March 2010.
  2. Pressman, D. (2008). Exploring the sources of radicalization and violent radicalization: Some transatlantic perspectives. Journal of Security Issues, 2, 1–23. http://www.jsiss.net/vols/vol2/Vol2.No1.Art1.pdf. Accessed March 15, 2010.
  3. Silber, M., & Bhatt, A. (2007). Radicalization in the West: The homegrown threat (pp. 1–90). New York: New York City Police Department. http://www.nypdshield.org/public/SiteFiles/documents/NYPD_Report-Radicalization_in_the_West.pdf. Accessed March 2010.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ryan C. W. Hall
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA