Racism is the belief that all members of each race possess characteristics or abilities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races (Oxford English Dictionary). This definition applies in four primary contexts, namely, individual, institutional, internalized, and horizontal or cultural racism. Individual racism is the belief and attitude set as well as an individual’s actions that support or perpetuate racism. Institutional racism is a term coined by Stokely Carmichael and is best described as the collective failure of an organization to provide appropriate and professional services to people because of their color, culture, or ethnicity. This concept covers government, universities, and private business, and is perhaps the bleakest kind of discrimination due to the numbers of individuals who are affected by institutional policies and mores. Internalized racism happens when an individual knows that stereotyping or certain...
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