Encyclopedia of Immigrant Health

2012 Edition
| Editors: Sana Loue, Martha Sajatovic


  • Scott K. Ober
  • Amy N. Sharpton
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-5659-0_61

Immigration to Australia

Experts estimate that approximately 50,000 years ago, ancestors of the Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent by means of Malay Archipelago and New Guinea. Europeans followed, arriving in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Britain, needing a new penal colony to alleviate the burden on its overcrowded prisons, set sail for Australia in 1787, 11 ships with approximately 1,350 convicts. On January 26, 1788, the ships landed at Sydney Cove. This date is now celebrated by some as Australia Day, while some Aboriginal people and supporters regard it as “Invasion Day.” The new colony was proclaimed as the Colony of New South Wales on February 7, 1788.

The Colony of New South Wales began to grow rapidly in 1815; as settlers arrived from Britain and Ireland, lands were opened for farming. The voyage by sea was long and perilous, but settlers were drawn by the prospect of a new life on virtually free land. Many settlers, known as squatters, occupied land...

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Suggested Readings

  1. Chappell, L., Chesterman, J., & Hill, L. (2009). The politics of human rights in Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Hugo, G., Rudd, D., & Harris, K. (2001). Emigration from Australia, economic implications. Melbourne, Australia: CEDA.Google Scholar
  3. Madison, S., & Denniss, R. (2009). An introduction to Australian public policy: Theory and practice. Melbourne, Australia: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Suggested Resources

  1. For information from the Australian Government: Department of Health and Aging: http://www.health.gov.au/
  2. For information on Emigration from Australia: http://www.immi.gov.au/media/fact-sheets/05emigration.htm
  3. For information on Living in Australia: http://www.immi.gov.au/
  4. For information on the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: http://www.aihw.gov.au/
  5. For information on the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: http://www.unhcr.org

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott K. Ober
    • 1
  • Amy N. Sharpton
    • 2
  1. 1.Case Western Reserve UniversityLouis Stokes VA Medical CenterClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Department of Veterans AffairsLouis Stokes DVA Medical Center ClevelandBrecksvilleUSA