Encyclopedia of Immigrant Health

2012 Edition
| Editors: Sana Loue, Martha Sajatovic


  • Tambra K. Cain
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-5659-0_517

Roughly 8,000 noncitizens enlist in the US military every year. As of 2005, the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) estimated that about 35,000 noncitizens currently serve in some branch of the active US military. Additionally, approximately 12,000 noncitizens were serving in the National Guard and Reserves. In 2003, the four services had the following numbers of noncitizens: Navy – 15,880 noncitizen sailors; Marine Corps – 6,440 noncitizen marines; Army – 5,596 noncitizen soldiers; Air Force – 3,056 noncitizen airmen.

The treatment of noncitizens across the US military services is not uniform. Each service branch has different policies regarding noncitizen service members. While limited English proficiency may impose a practical hurdle to potential noncitizen recruits, several of the services offer special enlistment programs for those seeking to enlist with limited English proficiency. Each branch has a differing proficiency requirement. Additionally, occupational choices available...

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Suggested Readings

  1. Asch, B. J., Buck, C., Klerman, J. A., Kleykamp, M., & Loughran, D. S. (2008). Military enlistment of Hispanic youth: Obstacles and opportunities. Santa Monica: RAND.Google Scholar
  2. Burkert, M. (2008). Fighting to belong: some immigrants choose military service before citizenship. The Chicago Reporter, 1 Nov 2008.Google Scholar
  3. Ford, N. G. (2001). Americans all!: Foreign-born soldiers in world war I. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar

Suggested Resources

  1. Center for Naval Analyses. Non-citizens in today’s military. http://www.cna.org/documents/D0011092.A2.pdf
  2. United States Citizenship and Immigration Services. Military. http://www.uscis.gov/military

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tambra K. Cain
    • 1
  1. 1.Barrett, Twomey, Broom, Hughes & Hoke, LLPCarbondaleUSA