Encyclopedia of Immigrant Health

2012 Edition
| Editors: Sana Loue, Martha Sajatovic

Metabolic Syndrome

  • Paul Lewandowski
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-5659-0_505

Metabolic syndrome is a disorder characterized by a cluster of the most dangerous heart attack risk factors: diabetes and prediabetes, abdominal obesity, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. A consensus worldwide definition of metabolic syndrome, including ethnic specific criteria was compiled by the International Diabetes Federation. In the case of migrants, the country of origin or ethnic background is used to define the appropriate group.

It is estimated that around 20–25% of the world’s adult population have the metabolic syndrome and they are twice as likely to die from and three times as likely to have a heart attack or stroke compared with people without the syndrome. In addition, people with metabolic syndrome have a fivefold greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes (adult onset). The clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors that typifies metabolic syndrome is now considered to be the driving force for a new CVD epidemic.

Each year, 3.2 million people...

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Suggested Readings

  1. Alberti, K. G., Zimmet, P., & Shaw, J. (2005). The metabolic syndrome – a new worldwide definition. Lancet, 366(9491), 1059–1062.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Kolt, G. S., Schofield, G. M., Rush, E. C., Oliver, M., & Chadha, N. K. (2007). Body fatness, physical activity, and nutritional behaviours in Asian Indian immigrants to New Zealand. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 16(4), 663–670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Kousar, R., Burns, C., & Lewandowski, P. (2008). A culturally appropriate diet and lifestyle intervention can successfully treat the components of metabolic syndrome in female Pakistani immigrants residing in Melbourne, Australia. Metabolism, 57(11), 1502–1508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Pomerleau, J., McKeigue, P. M., & Chaturvedi, N. (1999). Factors associated with obesity in South Asian, Afro-Caribbean and European women. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 23(1), 25–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Saely, C. H., Koch, L., Schmid, F., et al. (2006). Adult Treatment Panel III 2001 but not International Diabetes Federation 2005 criteria of the metabolic syndrome predict clinical cardiovascular events in subjects who underwent coronary angiography. Diabetes Care, 29(4), 901–907.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Lewandowski
    • 1
  1. 1.School of MedicineDeakin UniversityWaurn PondsAustralia