Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women worldwide. In low- and middle-income countries (LMC), also referred to as underdeveloped and developing countries, the incidence of breast cancer has increased in the past few decades. This has been associated with risk factors linked to the Westernization of dietary patterns as well as changes in physical activity. Also, infectious disease, which was responsible for a large portion of deaths in lower resource countries, has declined. People who would have died from infectious disease are growing older and age is a well-documented risk for breast cancer. Recent global efforts to promote breast cancer detection identify more cases; newer data collection systems, such as cancer registries and atlases, are better equipped to record breast cancer events. Thus, the coupling of reduced death from competing risk with improved screening and recording systems has contributed to increased breast cancer rates globally.
- Billmeier, T. M., & Dallo, F. J. (2011). Nativity status and mammography use: Results from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 13(5), 883–890. doi: 10.1007/s10903-010-9334-8.Google Scholar
- Brandan, M. E., & Villasenor-Navarro, Y. (2006). Deteccion de cancer de mama: Estado de la mamografia en Mexico. Cancerologia, 1, 147–162.Google Scholar
- Flórez, K. R., Aguirre, A. N., Viladrich, A., Céspedes, A., De La Cruz, A. A., & Abraído-Lanza, A. F. (2009). Fatalism or destiny? A qualitative study and interpretative framework on Dominican women’s breast cancer beliefs. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 11(4), 291–301.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hazuda, H., Stern, M., & Haffner, S. (1988). Acculturation and assimilation among Mexican Americans: Scales and population-based data. Social Science Quarterly, 69, 687–706.Google Scholar
- Knaul, F. M., López-Carillo, L., et al. (2009). México Reporte Rosa 2009–2010: Cáncer de mama a con-ciencia. Informe final. México, DF: Fundación Mexicana para la Salud, 2009, México.Google Scholar
- Pelaez, M., Palloni A., Albala, C., Alfonso, J. C., Ham-Chande, R., Hennis, A., Lebrao, M. L., Lesn-Diaz, E., Pantelides, E., & Prats, O. (2000). SABE – survey on health, well-being, and aging in Latin America and the Caribbean [Computer file]. ICPSR version. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) [producers], 2004. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2005. http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/studies/03546.
- Remennick, L. (2006). The challenge of early breast cancer detection among immigrant and minority women in multicultural societies. The Breast Journal, 12(Suppl. 1), 103–110.Google Scholar
- Reyes-Ortiz, C. A., Freeman, J. L., Peláez, M., Markides, K. S., & Goodwin, J. A. (2006). Mammography use among older women of seven Latin American and Caribbean cities. Preventive Medicine, 42(5), 375–380. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.02.005.Google Scholar
- Ward, E., Jemal, A., Cokkinides, V., Singh, G. K., Cardinez, C., Ghafoor, A., & Thun, M. (2004). Cancer disparities by race and ethnicity. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 54(2), 78–93.Google Scholar