Encyclopedia of Immigrant Health

2012 Edition
| Editors: Sana Loue, Martha Sajatovic


  • James Cavney
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-5659-0_41

Anger is an intense emotion typically experienced in relation to feelings of displeasure or antagonism. It can be induced by a real or supposed injury or insult to one’s self or others, or by the intent to do such injury. It is a common human emotion. It has been experienced by almost every person throughout human history. It is recognizable in infants and emerges at a predictable stage of their early development irrespective of culture or ethnicity. It is described in our oldest oral and written histories and has continued to be referenced in modern media and research.

The ubiquitous and enduring nature of anger as part of the human emotional experience makes it probable that it has served an adaptive function during the course of human evolution. However, anger has more often been viewed as a problematic and negative emotion due to its complex association with extremes of aggressive and violent behavior.

While there has been some disagreement over the intrinsic value of anger by...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Suggested Readings

  1. Beck, R., & Fernandez, E. (1998). Cognitive behavioural therapy in the treatment of anger: A meta-analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22(1), 63–74.Google Scholar
  2. DiGiuseppe, R., & Tafrate, R. C. (2006). Understanding anger disorders. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Kemp, S., & Strongman, K. T. (1995). Anger theory and management: A historical analysis. The American Journal of Psychology, 108(3), 397–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Mental Health European. (2007). European Conference on Mental Health. Joining forces across Europe for prevention and promotion in mental health (session on MDP/MHP for migrant populations), Barcelona.Google Scholar
  5. Novaco, R. (1975). Anger control: The development and evaluation of an experimental treatment. Lexington: Heath.Google Scholar
  6. Novaco, R. (2000). Anger, encyclopedia of psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Smith, C. V. (2003). Acculturation and psychological adaptation. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  8. Tiedens, L. Z. (2001). Anger and advancement versus sadness and subjugation: The effect of negative emotion expressions on social status conferral. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(1), 86–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Cavney
    • 1
  1. 1.Regional Forensic ServicesWaitemata District Health BoardAucklandNew Zealand