Encyclopedia of Immigrant Health

2012 Edition
| Editors: Sana Loue, Martha Sajatovic


  • Eva Winsjansen Holsinger
  • Anna Mandalakas
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-5659-0_22


Adoption is an increasingly familiar phenomenon in many countries with declining birth rates. The 2000 Census estimated that there were over two million adopted children living in the USA, including step-parent, child welfare, private and international adoptees. Since 1990, Americans have adopted roughly 280,000 children from overseas. Although the background of domestically and internationally adopted children may vary greatly, the growing body of literature suggests that children in these two groups have many common characteristics and needs.

Before 1990, children typically came from Korea, India, the Philippines, and Latin America. Since 1990, children have been primarily adopted from China, Korea, Russia, and Guatemala. International adoption is fueled by a variety of social, economic, political, and cultural pressures. Many children originate from countries in transition. As these countries regain equilibrium, they may strengthen child welfare systems, moving from...

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Suggested Readings

  1. American Academy of Pediatrics. (2009). Medical evaluation of internationally adopted children for infectious diseases. In L. K. Pickering (Ed.), Red book: 2009 report of the committee on infectious diseases (28th ed.). Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.Google Scholar
  2. Dennis, W. (1973). Children of the creche. New York: Appleton Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  3. Groza, V., Rosenberg, K., & Houlihan, L. (2001). International adoptions. In V. Groza & K. Rosenberg (Eds.), Clinical and practice issues in adoption: Bridging the gap between adoptees placed as infants and as older children, revised and expanded (pp. 87–206). Westport, CT: Bergen & Garvey.Google Scholar
  4. Johnson, D. (2005). International adoption: What is fact, what is fiction, and what is the future? Pediatric Clinics of North America, 52, 1221–1246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Rutter, M., & The English and Romanian Adoptees Study Team. (1998). Developmental catch-up, and the deficit, following adoption after severe global early deprivation. Journal of Child Psychology and Child Psychiatry, 39, 465–476.Google Scholar

Suggested Resources

  1. American Academy of Pediatrics Children’s Health Topics: Adoption. http://www.aap.org/healthtopics/adoption.cfm. Accessed January 15, 2011.
  2. Intercountry Adoption: Office of Children’s Issues, US Department of State. http://www.adoption.state.gov/. Accessed January 14, 2011.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eva Winsjansen Holsinger
    • 1
  • Anna Mandalakas
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsCase Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Global Child Health, Department of PediatricsCase Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA