Encyclopedia of Operations Research and Management Science

2013 Edition
| Editors: Saul I. Gass, Michael C. Fu


  • Richard M. Burton
  • Børge Obel
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1153-7_712


Organization studies encompass two areas: organization theory as a positive science to explain and understand the structure, behavior, and effectiveness of an organization; and organizational design as a normative science to recommend better designs for increased effectiveness and efficiency. Organization theory attempts to understand and explain; organizational design creates and constructs an organization.

Organizing behavior is evident in history from the earliest of recorded time. Ancient China was a highly organized society, a meritocracy with labor specialization. The Roman Empire, and in particular the Roman army, was efficiently designed. The modern organization is part and parcel to civilization, and its understanding fundamental to modern life. Not only is organization both timely and timeless, its study is basic in management science, political science, economics, sociology, business, and military science, to name a few. Organization study is interdisciplinary...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Fuqua School of BusinessDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Aarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark