Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS) and Short Version PASS-20
Short self-report questionnaires designed to measure aspects of pain-related anxiety and avoidance for use in clinical assessment and research.
The 40-item Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS) (McCracken, Zayfert, & Gross, 1992) and a shorter 20-item version of the same assessment instrument (PASS-20) (McCracken & Dhingra, 2002) measure pain-related anxiety, fear, and avoidance. They were designed for clinical and research purposes and mostly for use with adults with recurrent or chronic pain conditions. However, they have been validated and used in people without identified pain conditions, such as university students and people recruited from community settings (Abrams, Carleton, & Asmundson, 2007). The original PASS was developed at a time during the late 1980s and early 1990s when clinicians and researchers were beginning to focus greater attention on processes of fear and avoidance in relation to chronic pain. Since that time a model of chronic pain referred...
References and Readings
- Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- McCracken, L. M., & Dhingra, L. (2002). A short version of the Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale (PASS-20): Preliminary development and validity. Pain Research & Management, 7, 45–50.Google Scholar