Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

2013 Edition
| Editors: Marc D. Gellman, J. Rick Turner

Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS) and Short Version PASS-20

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_907


Short self-report questionnaires designed to measure aspects of pain-related anxiety and avoidance for use in clinical assessment and research.


The 40-item Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS) (McCracken, Zayfert, & Gross, 1992) and a shorter 20-item version of the same assessment instrument (PASS-20) (McCracken & Dhingra, 2002) measure pain-related anxiety, fear, and avoidance. They were designed for clinical and research purposes and mostly for use with adults with recurrent or chronic pain conditions. However, they have been validated and used in people without identified pain conditions, such as university students and people recruited from community settings (Abrams, Carleton, & Asmundson, 2007). The original PASS was developed at a time during the late 1980s and early 1990s when clinicians and researchers were beginning to focus greater attention on processes of fear and avoidance in relation to chronic pain. Since that time a model of chronic pain referred...

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References and Readings

  1. Abrams, M. P., Carleton, R. N., & Asmundson, G. J. G. (2007). An exploration of the psychometric properties of the PASS-20 with a nonclinical sample. The Journal of Pain, 8, 879–886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  3. Larsen, D. K., Taylor, S., & Asmundson, G. J. G. (1997). Exploratory factor analysis of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale in patients with chronic pain complaints. Pain, 69, 27–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. McCracken, L. M., & Dhingra, L. (2002). A short version of the Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale (PASS-20): Preliminary development and validity. Pain Research & Management, 7, 45–50.Google Scholar
  5. McCracken, L. M., & Gross, R. T. (1998). The role of pain-related anxiety reduction in the outcome of multidisciplinary treatment for chronic low back pain: Preliminary results. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 8, 179–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  8. Vlaeyen, J. W. S., & Linton, S. J. (2000). Fear-avoidance and its consequences in chronic musculoskeletal pain: A state of the art. Pain, 85, 317–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentInstitute of Psychiatry, King’s College LondonLondonUK