Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

2013 Edition
| Editors: Marc D. Gellman, J. Rick Turner

Physical Activity and Health

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_611

Synonyms

Definition

Physical activity (PA) is any body movement that leads to skeletal muscle contraction and noticeable increases in energy expenditure (US Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 2008). Such activities can be walking, washing windows, or gardening.

Description

Introduction

There is strong evidence that there are greater physical, physiological, and possibly mental health benefits from a lifestyle that includes more occupational and leisure-time physical activity (PA) than a predominantly sedentary (inactive or underactive) lifestyle (USDHHS, 2008). These benefits include a risk reduction for type 2 diabetes, overweight/obesity, cardiovascular disease, stroke, high blood pressure, an adverse lipid profile, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and loss of function and autonomy in older age. There is also a great interest in the benefits of PA for mitigating and possibly preventing cancer and its significant morbidity and mortality rates: the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

References and Readings

  1. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Fogelholm, M., Hilloskorpi, H., Laukkanen, R., Oja, P., Van Marken, L. W., & Westerterp, K. (1998). Assessment of energy expenditure in overweight women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30, 1191–1197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gelibeter, A., Maher, M. M., Gerace, L., Gutin, B., Heymsfield, S. B., & Hashim, S. A. (1997). Effects of strength of aerobic training on body composition, resting metabolic rate, and peak oxygen consumption in obese dieting subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66(3), 557–563.Google Scholar
  5. Haskell, W. L., Lee, I.-M., Pate, R. R., Powell, K. E., Blair, S. N., Franklin, C. A., et al. (2007). Physical activity and public health: Updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(8), 1423–1434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kahn, E. B., Ramsey, L. T., Brownson, R. C., Heath, G. W., Howze, E. H., Powell, K. E., et al. (2002). The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22(4S), 73–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. King, A. C., Stokols, D., Talen, E., Brassington, G. S., & Killingsworth, R. (2002). Theoretical approaches to the promotion of physical activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23(2), 15–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Marcus, B. H., & Simkin, L. R. (1993). The stages of exercise behavior. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 33(1), 83–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Pate, R. R., Pratt, R. M., Blair, S. N., Haskell, W. L., Macera, C. A., Bouchard, C., et al. (1995). Physical activity and public health: A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 402–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1983). Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 51(3), 390–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Rogers, R. W. (1983). Cognitive and physiological process in fear appeals and attitude change: A revised theory of protection motivation. In J. R. Cacioppo & R. E. Petty (Eds.), Social psychology: A source book (pp. 153–176). New York: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  12. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Schmitz, K. H., Courneya, K. S., Matthews, C. M., Demark-Wahnefried, W., Galvao, D. A., Pinto, B. M., et al. (2010). American College of Sports Medicine roundtable on exercise guidelines for cancer survivors. Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise, 42, 258–266.Google Scholar
  14. Schoenborn, C. A., & Adams, P. F. (2010). Health behaviors of adults: United States 2005–2007. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital and Health Statistics, 10(245), 1–132.Google Scholar
  15. Tudor-Locke, C., & Bassett, D. R. (2004). How many steps/day are enough? Preliminary pedometer indices for public health. Sports Medicine, 34, 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2008). Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee report, 2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  17. Van Poppel, M. N., Chinapaw, M. J., Mokkink, L. B., van Mechelen, W., & Terwee, C. B. (2010). Physical activity questionnaires for adults: A systematic review of measurement properties. Sports Medicine, 440(7), 565–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Vanhees, L., Lefevre, J., Philippaerts, R., Martens, M., Huygens, W., Troosters, T., et al. (2005). How to assess physical activity? How to assess physical fitness? European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, 12, 102–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Yancey, A. K., Kumanyika, S. K., Ponce, N. A., McCarthy, W. J., Fielding, J. E., Leslie, J. P., et al. (2004). Population-based interventions engaging communities of color in healthy eating and activity living: A review. Preventing Chronic Disease, 1, A09.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centers for Behavioral and Preventive MedicineBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologySouthern Methodist UniversityDallasUSA