Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor (PAI-1)
The rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is a recognized key event in acute ischemic syndromes, such as myocardial infarctions. The intravascular thrombotic response to a ruptured plaque is a complex cascade of thrombogenic (clot-forming) and thrombolytic (clot-dissolving) mechanisms. A key component of the thrombotic cascade is plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). PAI-1 inhibits the activation of plasminogen by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase (uPA) and, hence, inhibits clot lysis.
PAI-1 is a single-chain glycoprotein composed of nearly 380 amino acids. It is a member of the serine proteases family and is synthesized by vascular endothelium and smooth muscle cells in both normal and atherosclerotic arteries. By synthesizing molecules like PAI-1, arterial smooth muscle cells can prevent bleeding from small vascular injuries; congenital deficiencies of PAI-1 are a rare cause of abnormal bleeding.
Associations between PAI-1 and incident or recurrent...
References and Readings
- Juhan-Vague, I., Pyke, S. D., Alessi, M. C., Jespersen, J., Haverkate, F., & Thompson, S. G. (1996). Fibrinolytic factors and the risk of myocardial infarction or sudden death in patients with angina pectoris. ECAT Study Group. European Concerted Action on Thrombosis and Disabilities. Circulation, 94(9), 2057–2063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar