A condition or syndrome with distinctive cognitive, affective, and/or behavioral symptoms, arising from underlying psychobiological dysfunction and causing significant distress, impairment, or an increased risk of death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000).
Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. It did not emerge as an independent discipline until the late 1800s; however, the roots of psychiatric assessment and treatment extend back to the ancient Greeks and Egyptians (for a comprehensive overview of the history of psychiatry, see Wallace & Gach, 2008). Psychiatric illnesses are currently diagnosed with reference to either the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV; APA, 2000) or the International Classification of Disease, 10th revision...
References and Readings
- American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. See also http://www.psych.org/mainmenu/research/dsmiv.aspx
- McHugh, P. R., & Slavney, P. R. (1998). The perspectives of psychiatry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
- Wallace, E. R., & Gach, J. (Eds.). (2008). History of psychiatry and medical psychology: With an epilogue on psychiatry and the mind-body relation. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (2007). International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, Version for 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2011 from http://apps.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/icd10online/