Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

2012 Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Geothermal Resources, Environmental Aspects of

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0851-3_838

Definition of the Subject

The Encyclopedia of Environmental Science considers the environment to be “the sum of all external conditions and influences affecting the life and development of organisms” [1] and the Oxford Dictionary defines it as “the set of circumstances or conditions … in which a person or community lives, works, develops, etc., or a thing exists or operates; the external conditions affecting the life of a plant or animal” [2].

The term “environment ” is therefore generally used in a broad sense to encompass not only physical conditions, but also the cultural and spiritual conditions of people living nearby.

All sources of energy that are used involve some impact on the environment, either in the process of energy extraction, use or in manufacturing the equipment involved. Key features of the geothermal environment are:

Natural Thermal Features

In many geothermal fields there are beautiful natural thermal features that vary in color and form: geysers, fumaroles, hot...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

Bibliography

Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    Parker SP (1980) Encyclopedia of environmental science, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brown L (1993) New shorter oxford english dictionary. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cataldi R, Hodgson SF, Lund JW (1999) Stories from a heated Earth: our geothermal heritage. Geothermal Resources Council, International Geothermal Association, Sacremento, p 569Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thoreaux HD (1860) Letter to Harrison Blake, Written 20 May, 1860. www.walden.org/documents/file/Library/Thoreau/writings/correspondence/Correspondence/1860. Accessed 14 April 2011
  5. 5.
    DiPippo R (2008) Geothermal well drilling. In: DiPippo R (ed) Geothermal power plants, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bixley PF, Clotworthy AW, Mannington WI (2009) Evolution of the Wairakei geothermal reservoir during 50 years of production. Geotherm 38:145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    White PA, Hunt TM (2005) Simple modelling of the effects of exploitation on hot springs, Geyser Valley, Wairakei, New Zealand. Geotherm 34:184–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Glover RB, Hunt TM, Severne CM (2000) Impacts of development on a natural thermal feature and their mitigation – Ohaaki Pool, New Zealand. Geotherm 29:509–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bolanos GT, Parilla EV (2000) Response of the Bao-Banati thermal area to development of the Tongonan geothermal field, Philippines. Geotherm 29:499–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bromley CJ (2009) Groundwater changes in the Wairakei-Tauhara geothermal system. Geotherm 38:134–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bixley PF, Hattersley SD (1983) Long term casing performance of Wairakei production wells. In: Proceedings 5th NZ geothermal workshop, Geothermal Institute, Auckland, pp 257–263Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lofgren BE, Klausing RL (1969) Land subsidence due to ground-water withdrawal, Tulare-Wasco area, California. US geological survey professional Paper 437-BGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holzer TL, Johnson AI (1985) Land subsidence caused by ground water withdrawal in urban areas. GeoJ 11:245–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mayuga MN, Allen DR (1970) Subsidence in the Wilmington oil field, Long Beach, California, U.S.A. In: Tison LJ (ed) Land subsidence. International Association of Scientific Hydrology, UNESCO, pp 66–79Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bruno MS, Bovberg CA (1992) Reservoir compaction and surface subsidence above the Lost Hills Field, California. 33rd US symposium on rock mechanics, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, Paper No. 92-0263Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Allis RG, Bromley CJ, Currie S (2009) Update on subsidence at the Wairakei-Tauhara geothermal system, New Zealand. Geotherm 38:169–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Allis RG, Zhan X (2000) Predicting subsidence at Wairakei and Ohaaki geothermal fields, New Zealand. Geotherm 29:479–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Glowacka E, Sarychikhina O, Nava FA (2005) Subsidence and stress change in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, B.C., Mexico. Pure Appl Geophys 162:2095–2110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Geri G, Marson I, Rossi A, Toro B (1982) Gravity and elevation changes in the Travale geothermal field (Tuscany) Italy. Geotherm 11:153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mossop A, Segall P (1997) Subsidence at the Geysers geothermal field, N. California from a comparison of GPS and leveling surveys. Geophys Res Lett 24:1839–1842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gettings P, Allis R, Harris RN, Chapman DS (2001) High-precision gravity and GPS monitoring of The Geysers geothermal system. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting, Abstract #G41B-0225Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Allis RG, Carey B, Darby D, Read SAL, Rosenberg M, Wood CP (1997) Subsidence at Ohaaki field. In: Proceedings of the 19th NZ geothermal workshop, Geothermal Institute, Auckland, pp 9–15Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Protacio JA, Golla G, Nordquist G, Acuña J, San Andres RB (2000) Gravity and elevation changes in the Bulalo geothermal field, Philippines: independent checks and constraints on numerical simulation. In: Proceedings of the 22nd NZ Geothermal Workshop, Geothermal Institute, Auckland, pp 115–119Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Di Filippo M, Dini I, Marson I, Palmieri F, Rossi A, Toro B (1995) Subsidence and gravity changes induced by exploitation in the Travale-Radicondoli geothermal field (Tuscany, Italy). In: Proceedings world geothermal congress 1995, Florence, Italy, 3, pp 1945–1949Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fujimitsu Y, Nishijima J, Shimosako N, Ehara S, Ikeda K (2000) Reservoir monitoring by repeat gravity measurements at the Takigami geothermal field, central Kyushu, Japan. In: Proceedings world geothermal congress 2000, Japan, pp 573–577Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Eysteinsson H (2000) Elevation and gravity changes at geothermal fields on the Reykjanes peninsula, SW Iceland. In: Proceedings world geothermal congress 2000, Kyushu – Tohoku, pp 559–564Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hunt TM, Bromley CJ, Risk GF, Sherburn S, Soengkono S (2009) Geophysical investigations of the Wairakei field. Geotherm 38:85–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sherburn S, Allis RG, Clotworthy A (1990) Microseismic activity at Wairakei and Ohaaki geothermal fields. In: Proceedings of the 12th NZ Geothermal Workshop, Geothermal Institute, Auckland, pp 51–55Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Smith B, Beall J, Stark M (2000) Induced seismicity in the SE Geysers Field, California, USA. In: Proceedings world geothermal congress 2000, pp 2887–2892Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rivas JA, Castellón JA, Maravilla JN (2005) Seven years of reservoir seismic monitoring at Berlín geothermal field, Usulután, El Salvador. In: Proceedings world geothermal congress 2005, Antalya, Turkey, 24–29 April 2005, Paper 215 6 ppGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Majer EL, Baria R, Stark M, Oates S, Bommer J, Smith B, Asanuma H (2007) Induced seismicity associated with enhanced geothermal systems. Geotherm 36:185–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stark M (1990) Imaging injected water in the Geysers reservoir using microearthquake data. Geoth Resourc Counc Trans 14:1697–1704Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Baria R, Michelet S, Baumgartner J, Dyer B, Nicholls J, Hettkamp T, Teza D, Soma, N, Asanuma H, Garnish J, Megel T (2005) Creation and mapping of 5000 m deep HDR/HFR reservoir to produce electricity. In: Proceedings world geothermal congress Antalya, Turkey, paper 1627Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    IGA (2010) Seismic risk assessment in Basel. IGA News 79:6–9Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Webster JG (1995) Chemical impacts of geothermal development. In: Brown KL (convenor) Course on environmental aspects of geothermal development. International Geothermal Association, Pisa, Italy, 145 ppGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bertani R, Thain IA (2002) Geothermal power generating plant CO2 emission survey. IGA News 49:1–3. http://www.geothermal-energy.org/files-39.html. Accessed 13 April 2011
  37. 37.
    Lund JW (2007) Characteristics, development and utilization of geothermal resources. Geo Heat Cent Q Bull 28:1–9Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dunstall MG, Graeber G (1997) Geothermal carbon dioxide for use in greenhouses. Geo Heat Cent Q Bull 18(1):8–13Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bromley CJ, Mongillo MA (1994) Hydrothermal eruptions – a hazard assessment. In: Proceedings of the 16th NZ Geothermal Workshop, Geothermal Institute, Auckland, pp 45–50Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Adams N, Thompson JD (1989) How a geothermal blowout was controlled. World Oil 208(6):36–42Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Anderson I (1991) Blowout blights future of Hawaii’s geothermal power. New Sci 1778:17Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bolton RS, Hunt TM, King TR, Thompson GEK (2009) Dramatic incidents during drilling at Wairakei geothermal field, New Zealand. Geotherm 38:40–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Goff S, Goff F (1997) Environmental impacts during geothermal development: some examples from Central America. In: Proceedings NEDO international geothermal symposium, 10–14 March 1997, Sendai, Japan, pp 242–250Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tester JW (2006) The future of geothermal energy – impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century. US Dept Energy, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, USA, 372 pp. ISBN 0-615-13438-6. http://geothermal.inel.gov/publications/future_of_geothermal_ energy.pdf. Accessed 13 April 2011
  45. 45.
    Leynes RD, Pioquinto WPC, Caranto JA (2005) Landslide hazard assessment and mitigation measures in Philippine geothermal fields. Geotherm 34:205–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Brown KL (1995) Impacts on the physical environment. In: Environmental aspects of geothermal development. IGA pre-congress short course, world geothermal congress Pisa, Italy, May 1995, pp 39–55Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bommer JJ, Oates S, Cepeda JM, Lindholm C, Bird J, Torres R, Marroquín G, Rivas J (2006) Control of hazard due to seismicity induced by a hot fractured rock geothermal project. Eng Geol 83:287–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hietter L (1995) Introduction to geothermal development and regulatory requirements. In: Brown KL (convenor) Course notes on environmental aspects of geothermal development. International Geothermal Association, Pisa, Italy, 18–20 May 1995, 145 ppGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Goff S (2000) The effective use of environmental impact assessments (EIAs) for geothermal development projects. In: Proceedings world geothermal congress 2000, Japan, 597–603Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Luketina K (2000) New Zealand geothermal resource management – a regulatory perspective. In: Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2000, Japan, pp 751–756Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Daysh S, Chrisp M (2009) Environmental planning and consenting for Wairakei: 1953–2008. Geotherm 38:192–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    O’Shaughnessy BW (2000) Use of economic instruments in management of Rotorua geothermal field, New Zealand. Geotherm 29:539–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Books and Reviews

  1. Dickson MH, Fanelli M (2003) Geothermal energy utilization and technology. UNESCO Publishing, Paris. ISBN 92-3-103915-6Google Scholar
  2. DiPippo R (2008) Geothermal power plants: principles, applications, case studies and environmental impact. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  3. Hunt TM (ed) (2000) Special issue on environmental aspects of geothermal development. Geothermics 29 (4/5), 175 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Hunt TM (2001) Five lectures on environmental effects of geothermal utilization. Report 2000-1, United Nations University, Reykjavik, Iceland. 109 pp. ISBN-9979-68-070-9Google Scholar
  5. Hunt TM (ed) (2005) Special issue on environmental aspects of geothermal energy. Geothermics 34(2). ISSN 0375-6505Google Scholar
  6. Rybach L, Muffler LJP (1981) Geothermal systems: principles and case histories. Wiley, New York, 359 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GNS ScienceWairakei Geothermal Research CentreTaupoNew Zealand