Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

2012 Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Ultraviolet Radiation: Distribution and Variability

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0851-3_453

Definition of the Subject and Its Importance

Solar UV radiation is the most energetic radiation that is able to penetrate the atmosphere and reach the Earth’s surface. Due to the very low intensities of the radiation in this wavelength range, its investigation started comparably late with respect to the other spectral regions of the solar spectrum. Dorno was the first to investigate systematically the seasonal and spectral variability of solar UV radiation at Davos, Switzerland. Starting in 1907, his measurements allowed to determine the distinct differences of radiation in this wavelength range, which were later explained by the absorption of atmospheric ozone (mainly located in the stratosphere). Using a specially designed spectroradiometer, he discovered the relationship between the cut-on of the solar spectrum in the UV-B and the path through the atmosphere. In view of his achievements, UV radiation at the time was also called Dorno radiation . In the 1960s, Paul Bener, also...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    Coblentz WW (1932) The Copenhagen meeting of the second international congress on light. Science 76:412–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Diffey BL (1991) Solar ultraviolet radiation effects on biological systems. Phys Med Biol 36(3):299–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gröbner J (2001) Characterisation of spectrophotometers used for spectral solar ultraviolet radiation measurements. Rad Prot Dosimetry 97:415–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dahlback A (1996) Measurements of biologically effective UV doses, total ozone abundances, and cloud effects with multichannel, moderate bandwidth filter instruments. Appl Opt 35:6514–6521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hülsen G (2007) Characterization and calibration of ultraviolet broadband radiometers measuring erythemally weighted irradiance. Appl Opt 46:5877–5886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chandrasekhar S (1960) Radiative transfer. Dover Press, New York. ISBN 0-486-60590-6Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stamnes K et al (1988) Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media. Appl Opt 27:2502–2509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Weihs P et al (1997) Accuracy of spectral UV model calculations 1. Consideration of uncertainties in input parameters. J Geophys Res 102(D1):1541–1550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Herman J et al (1999) Distribution of UV radiation at the Earth's surface from TOMS‐measured UV‐backscattered radiances. J Geophys Res 104(D10):12059–12076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arola A et al (2003) A new approach to estimating the albedo for snow-covered surfaces in the satellite UV method. J Geophys Res 108:4531. doi:10.1029/2003JD003492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    McKenzie R et al (2001) Satellite retrievals of erythemal UV dose compared with ground‐based measurements at northern and southern midlatitudes. J Geophys Res 106:D20. doi:10.1029/2001JD000545Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arola A et al (2005) Assessment of TOMS UV bias due to absorbing aerosols. J Geophys Res 110:D23211. doi:10.1029/2005JD005913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tanskanen A et al (2007) Validation of daily erythemal doses from Ozone Monitoring Instrument with ground‐based UV measurement data. J Geophys Res 112:D24S44. doi:10.1029/2007JD008830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bener P (1964) Investigation on the influence of clouds on the ultraviolet sky radiation. Contract AF 61(052)-618, Tech. Note 3, Davos-Platz, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mims FM III, Frederick JE (1994) Cumulus clouds and UV-B. Nature 371:291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rayleigh (1871) On the scattering of light by small particles. Phil Mag 41, 107, 274Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Madronich S et al (1998) Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 46(1–3):5–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Farman JC et al (1985) Large losses of total ozone in Antartica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction. Nature 315:207–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kirchhoff V et al (1997) UV-B enhancements at Punta Arenas, Chile. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 38:174–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kylling A et al (1998) Effect of aerosols on solar UV irradiances during the photochemical activity and solar ultraviolet radiation campaign. J Geophys Res 103:26051–26060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Blumthaler M et al (1988) Solar UVB albedo of various surfaces. Photochem Photobiol 48(1):85–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bernhard G et al (2007) Ultraviolet and visible radiation at Barrow, Alaska: climatology and influencing factors on the basis of version 2 National Science Foundation network data. J Geophys Res 112:D09101. doi:10.1029/2006JD007865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Degünther M et al (1998) Case study on the influence of inhomogeneous surface albedo on UV irradiance. Geophys Res Lett 25:3587–3590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mayer B, Degünther M (2000) Comment on “Measurements of erythemal irradiance near Davis station, Antarctica: effect of inhomogeneous surface Albedo”. Geophys Res Lett 27:3480–3490Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kylling A et al (2000) Determination of an effective spectral surface albedo from ground-based global and direct UV irradiance measurements. J Geophys Res 105(D4):4949–4959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Austin J et al (2006) Ensemble simulation of the decline and recovery of stratospheric ozone. J Geophys Res 111:D16314. doi:10.1029/2005JD006907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    WMO (2007) Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 2006. Global ozone research and monitoring project report No. 50. World Meteorological Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar

Books and Reviews

  1. Seckmeyer et al (2001) Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation, part 1: spectral instruments (WMO TD No. 1066), available at http://www.wmo.ch/pages/prog/arep/gaw/gaw-reports.html
  2. Seckmeyer et al., Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation – Part 2: Broadband instruments measuring erythemally weighted solar irradiance (WMO TD No. 1289), 55 p, July 2008, available at http://www.wmo.ch/pages/prog/arep/gaw/gaw-reports.html
  3. Webb et al (2003) Quality assurance in monitoring solar utraviolet radiation: The state of the art (WMO TD No. 1180), available at http://www.wmo.ch/pages/prog/arep/gaw/gaw-reports.html
  4. Zerefos C (1997) Solar ultraviolet radiation: modelling, measurements and effects (NATO ASI Series/Global Environmental Change). ISBN 3-540-62711-1Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.European Ultraviolet Calibration CenterPhysikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, World Radiation CenterDavos DorfSwitzerland