Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

2012 Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Geothermal Resources Worldwide, Direct Heat Utilization of

  • John W. Lund
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0851-3_305

Definition of the Subject

Direct or non-electric utilization of geothermal energy refers to the immediate use of the heat energy rather than to its conversion to some other form such as electrical energy. The primary forms of direct-use include heating swimming pools and baths, and for balneology (therapeutic use), space heating and cooling including district heating, agriculture (mainly greenhouse heating, crop drying, and some animal husbandry), aquaculture (mainly fish pond and raceway heating), providing heat for industrial processes, and heat pumps (for both heating and cooling). In general, the geothermal fluid temperatures required for direct heat use are lower than those for economic electric power generation, and as a result these resources are available in most countries.

Most direct-use applications use geothermal fluids in the low-to-moderate temperature range between 50°C and 150°C, and in general, the reservoir can be exploited by conventional water well drilling...

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Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    Muffler LPJ (ed) (1979) Assessment of geothermal resources of the United States – 1978, USGS Circular 790, Arlington, VA, 163 pGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gudmundsson JS, Lund JW (1985) Direct uses of earth heat. Int J Energy Res 9:345–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Geo-Heat Center (1997) Quarterly Bulletin 19(1), Geothermal direct-use equipment. Klamath Falls, OR, 38 p. http://geoheat.oit.edu/bulletin/bull19-1/bull19-1.pdf
  4. 4.
    Lund JW, Freeston DH, Boyd TL (2010) Direct utilization of geothermal energy 2010 worldwide review. Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia (CD-ROM)Google Scholar
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    Lund JW, Bloomquist RG, Boyd TL, Renner J (2005b) The United States of America country update – 2005. Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, vol. 29, Davis, CA (CD-ROM)Google Scholar
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    Gudmundsson JS, Freeston DH, Lienau PJ (1985) The Lindal diagram. Geothermal Resources Council Transaction 9(1), Davis, CA, 15–19Google Scholar
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    Lund JW (1996) Balneological use of thermal and mineral waters in the USA. Geothermics 25(1), Elsevier, UK, pp 103–148.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Taguchi S, Itoi R, Ysa Y (1996) Beppu hot springs. Geo Heat Cent Quart Bull 17(2):1–6Google Scholar
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    Lund JW (1990) Geothermal spas in Czechoslovakia. Geo Heat Cent Quart Bull 12(2):20–24Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boyd TL (1999) The Oregon Institute of Technology Geothermal Heating System – then and now. Geo Heat Cent Quart Bull 20(1):10–13Google Scholar
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    Lund JW, Boyd T (2009) Oregon Institute of Technology Geothermal Uses and Projects, past, present and future. Proceedings, thirty-fourth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (CD ROM)Google Scholar
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    Frimannsson H (1991) Hitaveita Reykjavikur after 60 years of operation – development and benefits. Geo Heat Cent Quart Bull 13(4):1–7Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lund JW (2005) Hitaveita Reykjavikur and the Nesjavellir geothermal co-generation power plant. Geo Heat Cent Quart Bull 26(2):19–24Google Scholar
  17. 17.
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  18. 18.
    Lund JW, Klein R (1995) Prawn park – Taupo, New Zealand. Geo Heat Cent Quart Bull 16(4):27–29Google Scholar
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    Lund JW (1995) Onion dehydration. Geothermal Resources Council Transaction, vol. 19, Davis, CA, 69–74Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chiasson A (2007) Geothermal energy utilization in ethanol production. Geo Heat Cent Quart Bull 28(1):2–5Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Trexler DT, Flynn T, Hendrix JW (1990) Heap Leaching. Geo Heat Cent Quart Bull 12(4):1–4Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lund JW, Rangel MA (1995) Pilot fruit drier for the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico. Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 1995, 2335–2338Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lund JW, Lienau PJ (1994) Onion dehydration. Geo Heat Cent Quart Bull 15(4):15–18Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rafferty K (2003) Industrial process and the potential for geothermal applications. Geo-Heat Center Quart Bull 24(3):7–12Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rafferty K (2004) Direct-use temperature requirements: a few rules of thumb. Geo-Heat Center Quart Bull 25(2):1–3Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lund JW, Lienau PJ, Lunis BC (eds) (1998) Geothermal direct-use engineering and design guidebook. Geo-Heat Center, Klamath Falls, p 470Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rafferty K, Keiffer S (2002) Thermal expansion in enclosed lineshaft pump columns. Geo Heat Cent Quart Bull 23(2):11–15Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ragnarsson A, Hrolfsson I (1998) Akranes and Borgarfjordur district heating system. Geo Heat Cent Quart Bull 19(4):10–13Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ryan GP (1981) Equipment used in direct heat projects. Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, vol. 5, Davis, CA, pp 483–485Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Culver GG, Reistad GM (1978) Evaluation and design of downhole heat exchangers for direct applications. Geo-Heat Center, Klamath FallsGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Geo-Heat Center (1999) Downhole heat exchangers. Geo-Heat Center Quart Bull 20(3):28 p. http://geoheat.oit.edu/bulletin/bull20-3/bull20-3.pdf
  32. 32.
    Dunstall MG, Freeston DM (1990) U-tube downhole heat exchanger performance in a 4-in. well, Rotorua, New Zealand. Proceedings of the 12th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop, Auckland, New Zealand, pp 229–232Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Curtis R, Lund J, Sanner B, Rybach L, Hellström G (2005) Ground source heat pumps – geothermal energy for anyone, anywhere: current worldwide activity. Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress, 2005 (CD-ROM), International Geothermal Association, AntalyaGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rafferty K (2008) An Information survival kit for the prospective geothermal heat pump owner. HeatSpring Energy, Cambridge, MA, p 32Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lund JW, Sanner B, Rybach L, Curtis R, Hellström G (2003) Ground-source heat pumps – a world overview, Renewable Energy World. James & James, London, pp 218–227Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kavanaugh S, Rafferty K (1997) Ground-source design of geothermal systems for commercial and institutional buildings. ASHRAE, Atlanta, p 167Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rafferty K (1983) Absorption refrigeration: cooling with hot water. Geo Heat Cent Quart Bull 8(1):17–20Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Geo-Heat Center (2005) Combined heat and power plant. Geo-Heat Center Quart Bull 26(3):36. http://geoheat.oit.edu/bulletin/bull26-3/bull26-3.pdf
  39. 39.
    Lund JW (complied by) (2005b) Combined heat and power plant, Neustadt-Glewe, Germany. Geo-Heat Center Quart Bull 26(2):31–34Google Scholar

Books and Reviews

  1. Cataldi R, Hodgson SF, Lund JW (eds) (1999) Stories from a heated earth – our geothermal heritage. International Geothermal Association and the Geothermal Resources Council, Davis, p 569Google Scholar
  2. Kavanaugh SP, Rafferty K (1997) Ground-source heat pumps – design of geothermal systems for commercial and institutional buildings. American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, p 167Google Scholar
  3. Lund JW (1996) Lectures on direct utilization of geothermal energy, United Nations University, Geothermal Training Program, Report 1, Orkustofnun, Reykjavik, Iceland, 123 pGoogle Scholar
  4. Lund JW, Lienau PJ, Lunis BC (eds) (1998) Geothermal direct-use engineering and design guidebook. Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, p 454Google Scholar


  1. European Geothermal Energy Council, Belgium, www.geothermie.de/egec_geothernet/menu/frameset.htm
  2. Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, http://geoheat.oit.edu
  3. Geothermal Education Office, USA, http://geothermal.marin.org
  4. IEA (International Energy Agency) Heat Pump Center, The Netherlands, www.heatpumpcentre.org
  5. International Ground Source Heat Pump Association, USA, http://www.igshpa.okstate.edu

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geo-Heat CenterOregon Institute of TechnologyKlamath FallsUSA