Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

2012 Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Uranium in the Environment: Behavior and Toxicity

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0851-3_294

Definition of Subject

Uranium (U) is a primordial radionuclide that is naturally present in the environment at low concentrations. Natural U is mainly a chemical hazard as opposed to a radiological hazard. The chemical speciation of U influences its bioavailability and toxicity . Under anoxic conditions, U is in the tetravalent state forming insoluble compounds and is immobile. Under oxic conditions, U is in the hexavalent state is mobile, bioavailable, and tends to have higher toxicity. Low absorption in the gut and a tendency to decrease in concentration up the food chain makes U toxicity of little concern at typical background concentrations, but at elevated concentration U may be toxic.

Considerable work has investigated the toxicity of U to humans using animal models. This work is applicable to wildlife. In comparison to mammals, little effort has focused on the toxicity of U to terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates. For some aquatic species, U toxicity decreases with an...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    Bleise A, Danesi PR, Burkart W (2003) Properties, use and health effects of depleted uranium (DU): a general overview. J Environ Radioact 64:93–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ribera D, Labrot F, Tisnerat G, Narbonne JF (1996) Uranium in the environment: occurrence, transfer, and biological effects. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 146:53–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Meinrath A, Schneider P, Meinrath G (2003) Uranium ores and depleted uranium in the environment, with a reference to uranium in the biosphere from the Erzgebirge/Sachsen, Germany. J Environ Radioact 64:175–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Harley NH (1996) Toxic effects of radiation and radioactive materials. In: Klaassen CD (ed) Casarett and Doull’s toxicilogy: the basic science of poisons. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 773–800Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Markich S (2002) Uranium speciation and bioavailability in aquatic systems: an overview. Sci World J 2:707–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Environmental Canada, Health Canada (2003) Canadian Environmental Protection Act 1999. Priority substances list assessment report releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities (Impact on non-human biota). Final Report May 2003Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kalin M, Wheeler WN, Meinrath G (2005) The removal of uranium from mining waste water using algal/microbial biomass. J Radiochem Radioact 78:151–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Environment Canada (1983) Guideline for surface water quality volume 1: inorganic chemical substances URANIUM. Inland Waters Directorate, Water Quality Branch, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Painter S, Cameron EM, Allan R, Rouse J (1994) Reconnaissance geochemistry and its environmental relevance. J Geochem Explor 51:213–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) (2007) Canadian soil quality guidelies for uranium: environmental and human health scientific supporting document PN 1371 ISBN 978-1-896997-64-3 PDFGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gascoyne M (1992) Geochemistry of the actinides and their daughters. In: Ivanovich M, Harmon RS (eds) Uranium series disequilibrium: applications to earth, marine and environmental sciences, 2nd edn. Clarendon, Oxford, pp 34–61Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Macdonald CR (1998) The chemical toxicity of uranium to wildlife. Report to the Commercial Chemical Division, Environment Canada. Contract Number K2221-7-0076. Pinawa, MB. 32 ppGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ragnarsdottir KV, Charlet L (2000) Uranium behavior in natural environments. In: Cotter-Howells JD, Campbell LS, Valsami-Jones E, Batchelder M (eds) Environmental mineralogy: microbial interactions, anthropogenic influences, contaminated land and waste management, vol 9, Mineralogical Society Series. Mineralogical Society, London, pp 245–289Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sheppard MI (1980) The environmental behaviour of uranium and thorium. Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba, 44 pp. (Technical Report AECL-6795)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fernandes HM, Filho FFLS, Perez V, Franklin MR, Gomiero LA (2006) Radioecological characterization of a uranium mining site located in a semi-arid region of Brazil. J Environ Radioact 88:140–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Landa ER, Gray JR (1995) US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes. Environ Geol 26:19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Joshi SR, Waite DT, Platford RF (1989) Vertical distribution of uranium mill tailings contaminants in Langley Bay, Lake Athabasca sediments. Sci Tot Environ 87(88):85–104Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thomas PA (1997) The ecological distribution and bioavailability of uranium series radionuclides in terrestrial food chains: key Lake uranium operations, northern Saskatchewan. Prepared for Environmental Protection, Prairie and Northern Region, Environment Canada, Regina, Saskatchewan, by P.A. Thomas, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SaskatchewanGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Robertson EL, Liber K (2007) Bioassays with caged Hyalella azteca to determine in situ toxicity downstream of two Saskatchewan, Canada, uranium operations. Environ Toxicol Chem 26:2345–2355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shropshire DE, Williams KA, Boore WB, Smith JD, Dixon BW, Dunzik-Gougar M, Adams RD, Combert D, Schneider E (2008) Advanced fuel cycle cost basis. Report prepared for Idaho National laboratory, INL/EXT-07-12107 Rev. 1Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Diehl P (1999) Depleted uranium: a by-product of the nuclear chain. http://www.antenna.nl/wise-database/uranium/dhap99f.html. Accessed 22 Nov 2009
  22. 22.
    Tracy BL, Prantl FA (1985) Radiological impact of coal-fired power generation. J Environ Radioact 2:145–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chen JH, Edwards RL, Wasserburg GJ (1986) 238U, 234U & 232Th in seawater. Earth Planet Sci Lett 80:241–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Choppin GR, Stout BE (1989) Actinide behaviour in natural waters. Sci Total Environ 83:203–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Environment Canada (2008) Canadian water quality guidelines for uranium: Scientific supporting document (Draft) 10th March, 2004 original draft updated 5 Feb 2008Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bosshard E, Zimmerli B, Schlatter Ch (1992) Uranium in the diet: risk assessment of its nephro- and radiotoxicity. Chemosphere 24:309–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Langmuir D (1978) Uranium solution-mineral equilibria at low temperatures with application to sedimentary ore deposits. Geochim Cosmochim Act 42:547–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hamelink JL, Landrum PF, Bergman HL, Benson WH (1994) Bioavailability: physical, chemical and biological interactions. Lewis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Markich SJ, Brown PL, Jeffree RA, Lim RP (2000) Valve movement responses of Velesunio angasi (Bivalvia: Hyriidae) to manganese and uranium: an exception to the free ion activity model. Aquat Toxicol 1:155–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Denison FH, Garnier-Laplace J (2005) The effects of database parameter uncertainty on uranium (VI) equilibrium calculations. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69:2183–2191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Unsworth ER, Jones P (2002) The effect of thermodynamic data on computer model predictions of uranium speciation in natural water systems. J Environ Monit 4:528–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fortin C, Dutel L, Garnier-Laplace J (2004) Uranium complexation and uptake by green alga in relation to chemical speciation: the importance of the free uranyl ion. Environ Toxicol Chem 23:974–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fournier ED, Tran F, Denison J, Massabuau C, Garnier-Laplace J (2004) Valve closure response to uranium exposure for a freshwater bivalve (Corbicula fluminea): qualification of the influence of pH. Environ Toxicol Chem 23:1108–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Markich SJ, Brown PL, Jeffree RA (1996) The use of geochemical speciation modelling to predict the impact of uranium to freshwater biota. Radiochemica Acta 74:321–326Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Reithmuller N, Markich SJ, Van Dam RA, Parry D (2001) Effects of water hardness and alkalinity on the toxicity of uranium to a tropical freshwater hydra (Hydra viridissima). Biomarkers 6:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Barata C, Baird DJ, Markich SJ (1998) Influence of genetic and environmental factors on the tolerance of Daphnia magna straus to essential and non-essential metals. Aquat Toxicol 42:115–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Higgo JJW (1987) Clay as a barrier to radionuclide migration. Progr Nucl Energy 19:173–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bernhard G, Geipel G, Brendler V, Nitsche H (1998) Uranium speciation in waters of different uranium miningareas. J Alloy Comp 271–273:201–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Melville GE (1995) Changes in the pelagic crustacean zooplankton of high-boreal Island Lake, Saskatchewan, associated with uranium mining. Environ Monit Assess 34:45–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sheppard SC (1995) Parameter values to model the soil ingestion pathway. Environ Monit Assess 34:27–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fleming S, Marsh M, Wagenaar A, McLaughlin D, Bloxam R (2000) Proposed ambient air quality standards for uranium. Rational Document: for discussion with Port Hope stakeholders. Ontario Ministry of the EnvironmentGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sheppard SC, Evenden WG (1992) Bioavailability indices for uranium: effect of concentration in eleven soils. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 23:117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Batson VL, Bertsch PM, Herbert BE (1996) Transport of anthropogenic uranium from sediments to surface waters during episodic storm events. J Environ Qual 25:1129–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Babich H, Stotzky G (1985) Heavy metal toxicity to microbe-mediated ecological processes: a review and potential application to regulatory policies. Environ Res 36:111–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Coughtrey PJ, Jones CH, Martin MH, Shales SW (1979) Litter accumulation in woodlands contaminated by Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu. Oceologia 39:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bird GA, Stephenson M, Cornett RJ (1993) The surface water sub model for the assessment of Canada’s Nuclear fuel waste management concept. AECL research report AECL-10290, COG-91-193. Pinawa, ManitobaGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bird GA, Schwartz W (1996) Nuclide concentration factors for freshwater biota. Atomic Energy of Canada limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Technical Record TR-703, COG-95-397)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    FASSET Frederica radiation effects database federica-online.org http://www.frederica-online.org/panel.asp. Accessed 22 Nov 2009
  49. 49.
    International Atomic Energy Agency (1985) Radionuclides in the marine environment. Technical Reports Series No. 247Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    International Atomic Energy Agency (1994) Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments. Tech Report Series No 364Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    International Atomic Energy Agency (2010) Modeling the environmental transfer of tritium and carbon-14 to biota and man. Final report, Tritium and Carbon-14 Working Group, IAEA EMRAS Program, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sheppard MI, Thibault DH (1990) Default soil solid/liquid partition coefficients, Kds, for four major soil types: a compendium. Health Phys 59:471–482Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kumblad L, Kautsky U, Naeslund B (2006) Transport and fate or radionuclides in aquatic environments – the use of ecosystem modelling for exposure assessments of nuclear facilities. J Environ Radioact 87:107–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sheppard MI, Thibault DH (1984) Natural uranium concentrations of native plants over a low-grade ore body. Can J Bot 62:1069–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mahon DC (1982) Uptake and translocation of naturally-occurring radionuclides of the uranium series. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 29:697–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hanson WC, Miera FR Jr, (1976) Long-term ecological effects of exposure to uranium. Technical Report LA-6269 Los Alamos Scientific Lab, New Mexico, USACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Beyer WN, Connor EE, Gerould S (1994) Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife. J Wildl Manage 58:375–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Linsalata P, Morse R, Ford H, Eisenbud M, Franca EP, de Castro MB, Lobao N, Sachett I, Carlos M (1989) Transport pathways of Th, U, Ra and La from soil to cattle tissues. J Environ Radioact 10:115–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Weeks HP, Kirkpatrick CM (1976) Adaptations of white-tailed deer to naturally occurring sodium deficiencies. J Wildl Manage 40:610–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sullivan MF (1980) Absorption of actinide elements from the gastrointestinal tract of neonatal animals. Health Phys 38:173–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hesslein RH (1987) Whole-lake metal radiotracer movement in fertilized lake basins. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 44(suppl 1):74–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fisher NS, Teyssie JL, Krishnaswami S, Baskaran M (1987) Accumulation of Th, Pb, U, and Ra in marine phytoplankton and its geochemical significance. Limnol Oceanogr 32:131–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Degens ET, von Bronsart G, Ho Kim W, Khoo F, Dickman MD (1979) Environmental parameters responsible for the fixation of uranium in recent sediments; test area Bow lake, Ontario, Canada, Part 1. Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Palaeontologischen Institut der Universitaet Hamburg, no. 49, pp 27–60Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Nyffeler UP, Santschi PH, Li YH (1986) The relevance of scavenging kinetics to modelling of sediment-water interactions in natural waters. Limnol Oceanogr 31:277–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bird GA, Stephenson M, Cornett RJ (1993) The surface water model for assessing Canada’s nuclear fuel waste disposal concept. Waste Manag 13:153–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Santschi PH, Nyffeler UP, Anderson RF, Schiff SL, O’Hara P, Hesslein RH (1986) Response of radioactive trace metals to acid-base titrations in controlled experimental ecosystems: evaluation of transport parameters for application to whole-lake radiotracer experiments. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 43:60–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Carignan R, Nriagu JO (1985) Trace metal deposition and mobility in the sediments of two lakes near Sudbury, Ontario. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 49:1753–1764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Swanson SM (1985) Food-chain transfer of U-series radionuclides in a northern Saskatchewan aquatic system. Health Phys 49:747–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bird GA, Evenden WG (1994) Effect of sediment type, temperature and colloids on the transfer of radionuclides from water to sediment. J Environ Radioact 22:219–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ames LL, McGarrah JE, Walker BA (1983) Sorption of uranium and radium by biotote, muscovite, and phlogopite. Clays Clay Mater 31:343–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Santsci PH, Honeyman BD (1989) Radionuclides in aquatic environments. Radiat Phys Chem 34:213–40Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Livens FR (1991) Chemical reactions of metals with humic material. Environ Pollut 70:183–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bird GA, Schwartz WJ, Motycka M (1998) Fate of 60Co and 134Cs added to the hypolimnion of a Canadian Shield lake: accumulation in biota. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 55:987–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Likens GE, Davis MB (1975) Post-glacial history of Mirror Lake and its watershed in New Hampshire, U.S.A. An initial report. Int Ver Theor Angew Limnol 19:982–993Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Evans RD, Rigler FH (1983) A test of the lead-210 dating for the measurement of whole lake soft sediment accumulation. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 40:506–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Shaw TJ, Sholkovitz ER, Kinkhammer G (1994) Redox dynamics in the Chesapeake Bay; The effect on sediment/water uranium exchange. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58:2985–2995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Alberic P, Viollier EP, Jezequel D, Grosbois C, Michard G (2000) Interactions between trace elements and dissolved organic matter in the stagnant anoxic deep layer of a meromictic lake. Limnol Oceanogr 45:1088–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Edgington DN, Robbins JA, Colman SM, Orlandini KA, Gustin MP (1996) Uranium-series disequilibrium, sdimentation, diatom fustules, and paleoclimate change in Lake Baikal. Earth Plant Sci Lett 142:29–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hart BT (1982) Uptake of trace metals by sediments and suspended particulate: a review. Hydrobiologia 91:299–313Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Alberts JJ, Wahlgren MA, Orlandini KA, Durbahn CA (1989) The distributions of 29,240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am and 137Cs among chemically-defined components of sediments, settling particulates and net plankton of lake Michigan. J Environ Radioact 9:89–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jenne EA (1968) Controls on Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn concentrations in soils and water: the significant role of hydrous Mn and Fe oxides. In: Gould RF (ed) Trace inorganics in water, vol 73. American Chemical Society, Washington DC, pp 337–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wetzel RG (1975) Limnology. WB Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kovalsky VV, Vorotnitskaya IE (1965) Biogenic migration of uranium in Lake Issyk-Kul’. Geokhimiya 6:724–732Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Otton JK, Zielinski RA, Been JM (1989) Uranium in Holocene valley-fill sediments, and uranium, radon and helium in waters, Lake Tahoe-Carson Range Area Nevada and California. U.S.A. Environ Geol Water Sci 13:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Landa ER (1982) Leaching of radionuclides from uranium ore and mill tailings. Uranium 1:53–64Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bird GA, Schwartz WJ, Motycka M, Rosentreter J (1998) Behaviour of 60Co and 134Cs in a Canadian shield lake over five years. Sci Tot Environ 212:115–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Simpson SL, Apte SC, Batley GE (1998) Effect of short-term resuspension events on trace metal speciation in polluted anoxic sediment. Environ Sci Technol 32:620–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Walgren MA, Alberts JJ, Nelson DM, Orlandin KA (1976) Study of the behaviour of transuranics and possible chemical analogues in Lake Michigan water and biota. In: IAEA, Transuranium nuclides in the environment. Symposium Proceedings, San Francisco, pp 9–24. STI/PUB/410, International Atomic Energy Agency,ViennaGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Swanson SM (1983) Levels of 226Ra, 210Pb, and totalU in fish near a Saskatchewan uranium mine and mill. Health Phys 45:67–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ahsanullah M, Williams AR (1989) Kinetics of uranium uptake by the crab Pachygrapsus laevimanus and the zebra winkle Austrocochlea constricta. Mar Biol 101:323–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mirka MA, Clulow FV, Dave NK, Lim TP (1986) Radium-226 in cattails, Typha latifolia and bone of muskrat, Ondatra zibethica (L.) from a watershed with uranium tailings near the city of Elliot Lake, Canada. Environ Pollut 91:41–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Waite DT, Joshi SR, Sommerstad H (1988) The effect of uranium mine tailings on radionuclide concentrations in Langley Bay, Saskatchewan, Canada. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 17:373–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Golder Associates Ltd. (2002) Final report on current period environmental monitoring program for the Beaverlodge Mine site in northern Saskatchewan. Submitted to Cameco Corporation, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, by Golder Associates Ltd., Saskatoon, SaskachewanGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Aery NC, Jain GS (1998) Influence of uranium on the growth of wheat. J Environ Biol 19:5–23Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gulati KL, Oswal MC, Nagpaul KK (1980) Assimilation of uranium by wheat and tomato plants. Plant Soil 55:55–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Meyer MC, Paschke MW, McLendon T, Price D (1998) Decreases in soil microbial function and functional diversity in response to depleted uranium. J Environ Qual 27:1306–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sheppard SC (1989) Toxicity levels of arsenic and uranium in soils. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (AECL Technical Report TR-480)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sheppard MI, Thibault DH, Shepppard SC (1985) Concentrations and concentration ratios of U, As and Co in Scots pine grown in waste-site soil and an experimentally contaminated soil. Water Air Soil Pollut 26:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sheppard SC, Evenden WG, Anderson AJ (1992) Multiple assays of uranium toxicity in soil. Environ Toxicol Wat Qual 7:275–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sheppard SC, Sheppard MI, Gallerand M-O, Sanipelli B (2005) Derivation of ecotoxicity threshold for uranium. J Environ Radioact 79:55–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Weinberger P, Murthy TCSS (1985) Uranium uptake and its effects on the germination and early growth of some crop species. Report for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba Technical Record TR-329Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H (1992) Trace elements in soils and plants, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 365 ppGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Durbin PW, Wrenn ME (1975) Metabolism and effects of uranium in animals. Conference on occupational health experience with uranium. Arlington, Virginia, April 28–30, 1975. U.S. Energy Research & Development Administration; U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp 68–129 (ERDA 93)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Leach LJ, Yuile CL, Hodge HC, Sylvester GE, Wilson HB (1973) A five-year inhalation study with natural uranium dioxide (UO2) dust –II. Postexposure retention and biological effects in the monkey, dog and rat. Health Phys 25:239–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Leach LJ, Maynard EA, Hodge HC, Scott JK, Yuile CL, Sylvester GE, Wilson HB (1970) A five year inhalation study with natural uranium dioxide (UO2) dust –1. Retention and biological effect in the monkey, dog and rat. Health Phys 18:599–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kocher DC (1989) Relationship between kidney burden and radiation dose from chronic ingestion of U: implications for radiation standards for the public. Health Phys 57:9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Yuile CL (1973) Animal experiments. In: Hodge HC, Stannard JN, Hursh JB (eds) Uranium, plutonium, transplutonic elements. Springer, NewYork, pp 165–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Llobet JM, Sirvent JJ, Ortega A, Domingo JL (1991) Influence of chronic exposure to uranium on male reproduction in mice. Fund Appl Toxicol 16:821–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Harrison JD (1991) The gastrointestinal absorption of the actinide elements. Sci Tot Environ 100:43–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wrenn ME, Durbin PW, Howard B, Lipsztein J, Rundo J, Still ET, Willis DL (1985) Metabolism of ingested U and Ra. Health Phys 48:601–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Wrenn ME, Bertelli L, Durbin PW, Eckerman KF, Lipsztein JL, Singh NP (1995) A biokinetic and dosimetric model for the metabolism of uranium. Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, Ontario 79 pp (INFO-0500)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    International Commission on Radiological Protection (1979) Limits on intake of radionuclides by workers. ICRP Publication 30, Part 1. Pergamon, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Leggett RW, Harrison JD (1995) Fractional absorption of ingested uranium in humans. Health Phys 68:484–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Moss MM (1989) Study of the effects of uranium on kidney function. Atomic Energy Control Board INFO-0306Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sullivan MF, Gorham LS (1982) Further studies on the absorption of actinide elements from the gastrointestinal tract of neonatal animals. Health Phys 43:509–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    LaTouche YD, Willis DL, Dawydiak OI (1987) Absorption and biokinetics of U in rats following oral administration of uranyl nitrate solution. Health Phys 53:147–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Tracy BL, Quinn JM, Lahey J, Gilman AP, Mancuso K, Yagminas AP, Villenueve DC (1992) Absorption and retention of uranium from drinking water by rats and rabbits. Health Phys 62:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Morris SC, Meinhold AF (1995) Probabilistic risk assessment of nephrotoxic effect of uranium in drinking water. Health Phys 69:897–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hursh JB, Neuman WF, Toribara T, Wilson H, Waterhouse C (1969) Oral ingestion of U by man. Health Phys 17:619–621Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Berlin M, Rudale B (1979) Uranium. In: Friberg L, Norberg GF, Vouk VB (eds) Handbook on the toxicology of metals. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical, Amsterdam, pp 647–658Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Leggett RW (1989) The behavior and chemical toxicity of U in the kidney: a reassessment. Health Phys 57:365–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Domingo JL (2001) Reproductive and developmental toxicity of natural and depleted uranium: a review. Reprod Toxicol 15:603–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Gilman AP, Villeneuve DC, Secours VE, Yagminas AP, Tracy BL, Quinn JM, Valli VE, Moss MA (1998) Uranyl nitrate: 91-day toxicity studies in the New Zealand white rabbit. Toxicol Sci 41:129–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Gilman AP, Villeneuve DC, Secours VE, Yagminas AP, Tracy BL, Quinn JM, Valli VE, Willes RJ, Moss MA (1998) Uranyl nitrate: 28-day and 91-day toxicity studies in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Toxicol Sci 41:117–128Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Gilman AP, Moss MA, Villeneuve DC, Secours VE, Yagminas AP, Tracy BL, Quinn JM, Long G, Valli VE (1998) Uranyl nitrate: 91-day exposure and recovery studies in the male New Zealand White rabbit. Toxicol Sci 41:138–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Paternain JL, Domingo JL, Ortega A, Llobet JM (1989) The effects of uranium on reproduction, gestation and postnatal survival in mice. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 17:291–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Domingo JL, Paternain JL, Llobet JM, Corbella J (1989) The developmental toxicity of uranium in mice. Toxicol 55:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Maynard EA, Hodge HC (1949) Studies of the toxicity of various uranium compounds when fed to experimental animals. In: Voegtlin C, Hodge HC (eds) 1953 Pharmacology and toxicology of uranium compounds chronic inhalation and other studies. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 309–376Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Maynard EA, Downs WL, Hodge HC (1949) Oral toxicity of uranium compounds. In: Voegtlin C, Hodge HC (eds) The Pharmacology and toxicology of uranium compounds. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 1221–1369Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Domingo JL, Ortega A, Paternain JL, Corbella J (1989) Evaluation of the perinatal and postnatal effects of uranium in mice upon oral administration. Arch Environ Health 44:395–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Harvey RB, Kubera LF, Phillips TD, Heidelbaugh ND (1986) Validation of impaired renal function chick model with uranyl nitrate. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 36:67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Morrow P, Gelein R, Beiter H, Scott J, Picano J, Yuile C (1982) Inhalation and intravenous studies of UF6/UO2F2 in dogs. Health Phys 43:859–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    World Health Organization (2004) Uranium in Drinking-water: background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/118Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Health Canada (1999) Uranium guidelines for canadian drinking water quality: supporting documentation. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/water-eau/uranium/guideline-recommandation-eng.php
  135. 135.
    Hursh JB, Spoor NL (1973) Data on man. In: Hodge HC, Stannard JN, Hursh JB (eds) Handbook of experimental pharmacology: uranium, plutonium, transplutonic elements, vol 36. Springer, Berlin, pp 197–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    International Commission on radiological protection (1959) Permissible dose for internal radiation. International Commission on radiological protection Publication 2. Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    SuLu Fu-Yao Zhao (1990) Nephrotoxic limit and annual limit on intake for natural U. Health Phys 58:619–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Sample BE, Suter GW, II (1996) Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 59 pp. (ES/ER/TM-125)Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Linsalata P (1994) Uranium and thorium decay series radionuclides in human and animal foodchains – a review. J Environ Qual 23:633–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Haseltine SD, Sileo L (1983) Response of American black ducks to dietary uranium: a proposed substitute for lead shot. J Wildl Manage 47:1124–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Harvey RB, Kubera LF, Lovering SL, Mollenhauer HH, Phillips TD (1986) Acute toxicity of uranyl nitrate to growing chicks: a pathophysiologic study. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 37:907–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Kovalsky VV, Vorotnitskaya IE, Lekarev VS (1967) Biogeochemical food chains of uranium in aquatic and terrestrial organisms. In: Aberg B, Hungate FP (eds) Radioecological concentration processes. Pergamon, London, pp 329–332Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Cooley HM, Evans RE, Klaverkamp JF (2000) Toxicology of dietary uranium in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Aquat Toxicol 48:495–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Cooley HM, Klaverkamp JF (2000) Accumulation and distribution of dietary uranium in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Aquat Toxicol 48:477–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Bywater JF, Banaczkowski R, Bailey M (1991) Sensitivity to uranium of six species of tropical freshwater fishes and four species of cladocerans from northern Australia. Environ Toxicol Chem 10:1449–1458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Simon O, Garnier-Laplace J (2005) Laboratory and field assessment of uranium trophic transfer efficiency in the crayfish Orconectes limosus fed the bivalve C. fluminea. Aquat Toxicol 74:372–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Vizon SciTec (2004) Final Report on the toxicity investigation of uranium to aquatic organisms. Prepared for the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario by Vizon SciTec, Vancouver, British Columbia RSR-019-80Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Tarzwell CM, Henderson C (1960) Toxicity of less common metals to fish. Ind Waste 5:52–67Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Parkhurst BR, Elder RG, Meyer JS, Sanchez DA, Pennak RW, Waller WT (1984) An environmental hazard evaluation of uranium in a Rocky Mountain stream. Environ Toxicol Chem 3:113–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Davies PH (1980) Acute toxicity of uranium to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in soft water. Fort Collins, Coloradao, Colorado Division of Wildlife F-33-R-15Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Liber K, Stoughton S, Janz D (2003) Uranium toxicity testing using early life stage lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Draft report submitted to Saskatchewan Environment, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan by Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SaskatchewanGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Trapp KE (1986) Acute toxicity of uranium to waterfleas (Daphnia pulex) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Environmental & Chemical Sciences, Inc., Aiken, South Carolina (Report ECS-SR-30)Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Labrot F, Narbonne JF, Ville P, Saint Denis M, Ribera D (1999) Acute toxicity, toxicokinetics, and tissue target of lead and uranium in the clam Corbicula fluminea and the worm Eisenia fetida: comparison with the fish Brachydanio rerio. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 36:167–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Hamilton SJ (1995) Hazard assessment of inorganics to three endangered fish in the Green River, Utah. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 30:134–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Hamilton SJ, Buhl KJ (1997) Hazard evaluation of inorganics, singly and in mixtures, to flannelmouth sucker Catostomus Iatipinnis in the San Juan River, New Mexico. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 38:296–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Holdway DA (1992) Uranium toxicity to two species of Australian tropical fish. Sci Tot Environ 125:137–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Poston TM, Hanf RW Jr, Simmons MA (1984) Toxicity of uranium to Daphnia magna. Water Air Soil Pollut 22:289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Zeman FA, Gilbin R, Alonzo F, Lecomte-Pradines C, Garnier-Laplace J, Aliaume C (2008) Effects of waterbourne uranium on survival, growth, reproduction and physiological processes of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. Aquat Toxicol 86:370–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Kuhne WW, Caldwell CA, Gould WR, Fresquez PR, Finger S (2002) Effects of depleted uranium on the health and survival of Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:2198–2203Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Liber K, George T (2000) Toxicity of uranium to Ceriodaphnia dubia at different water hardnesses representative of northern Saskatchewan conditions. Report for COGEMA Resources Inc., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Toxicity Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SaskatchewanGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Pickett JB, Specht WL, Keyes JL (1993) Acute and chronic toxicity of uranium compounds to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, South Carolina. Prepared for the Department of Energy under contract DE-AC09-89SR 18035, 57 pp (WSRC-RP-92-995)Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Semaan M, Holdway DA, van Dam RA (2001) Comparative sensitivity of three populations of the cladoceran Moinodaphnia macleayi to acute and chronic uranium exposure. Environ Toxicol 16:365–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Charles AL, Markich SJ, Stauber JL, De Filippis LF (2002) The effect of water hardness on the toxicity of uranium to a tropical freshwater alga (Chlorella sp.). Aquat Toxciol 60:61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Franklin NM, Stauber JL, Markich SJ, Lim RP (2000) pH-dependent toxicity of copper and uranium to a tropical freshwater alga (Chlorella sp.). Aquat Toxicol 48:275–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Hogan A, van Dam R, Masrkich S, Camerilleri C (2005) Chronic toxicity of uranium to a tropical green alga (Chlorella sp.) in natural waters and the influence of dissolved organic carbon. Aquat Toxicol 75:343–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    van Dam R, Hogan A, Houston M, Noul S, Lee N (2006) Chronic toxicity of uranium to Lemna aequinoctialis and Amerianna cuming, In: Jones DR, Evans KG, Webb A (eds) Eriss research summary 2005–2006, Supervising Scientist Report 193, Supervising Scientist, Darwin NTGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Borgmann U, Couillard Y, Doyle P, Dixon DG (2005) Toxicity of sixty-three metals and metalloids to Hyalella Azteca at two levels of water hardness. Environ Toxicol Chem 24:641–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Alves LC, Borgmann U, Dixon DG (2008) Water-sediment interactions for Hyalella azteca exposed to uranium-spiked sediment. Aquat Toxic 87:187–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Burnett C, Liber K (2006) Can Chironomus tentans develop tolerance to uranium exposures over several generations? Society of environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) North America 27th Annual meeting, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Dias V, Ksas B, Camilleri V, Bonzom JM (2005) Sublethal effects of sediment-associated uranium on Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae. Radioprotection Suppl 40:S191–S197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Hyne RV, Rippon GD, Ellender G (1992) pH-dependent uranium toxicity to freshwater hydra. Sci Tot Environ 125:159–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Liber K, Stoughton S, Rosaasen A (2004) Chronic uranium toxicity to white sucker fry (Catostomus commersoni). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 73:1065–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Keklak MM, Newman MC, Mulvey M (1994) Enhanced uranium tolerance of an exposed population of the eastern Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki Girard 1859). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 27:20–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Krueger S, Olson GJ, Johnsonbaugh D, Beveridge TJ (1993) Characterization of binding of gallium, platinum, and uranium to Pseudomonas fluorescencesby small-angle x-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:4056–4064Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Khangarot BS (1991) Toxicity of metals to a freshwater tubificid worm, Tubifex tubifex (Muller). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 46:906–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Liu H-H, Wu JT (1993) Uptake and recovery of americium and uranium by Anacystis biomass. J Environ Sci Health part A Environ Sci Engin 28:491–504Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Nakajima A, Horikoshi T, Sakaguchi T (1979) Ion effects on the uptake of uranium by Chlorela regularis. Agric Biol Chem 43:625–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Horikoshi T, Nakajima A, Sakaguchi T (1979) Uptake of uranium by Chlorella cells grown under autorophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultue conditions. Agric Biol Chem 45:781–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Chassard-Bouchard C (1983) Cellular and subcellular localization of uranium in the crab Carcinus maenas: a microanalytical study. Mar Pollut Bull 14:133–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Jaagumagi R, Bedard D (2001) Bancroft area mines (Madawaska, Bicroft and Dyno Mines): assessment of impacts on water, sediment and biota from historical uranium mining activities. Final Report Prepared for Peterborough District Eastern Region Ministry of the EnvironmentGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Carroll JJ, Ellis SJ, Oliver WS (1979) Influence s of total hardness constituents on the acute toxicity of cadmium to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 22:575–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Welsh PG, Lipton J, Chapman GA, Podrarsky TL (2000) Relative importance of calcium and magnesium in hardness-based modification of copper toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:1624–1631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Holdway DA (1992) Uranium mining in relation to toxicological impacts on inland waters. Ecotoxicology 1:75–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Australian and New Zealand guidelines for fresh and marine water quality: Vol 2 – Aquatic ecosystems – Rationale and background information, Section 8.3.7 (http://www.mincos.gov.au/_data/assets/pdf_file/0020/316136/gfmwq-guidelines-vol2-8-3b.pdf). Accessed 14 Jan 2010
  185. 185.
    BEAK International incorporated (1998) Toxicity of uranium and trace metal discharged to the aquatic environment. Prepared for Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, Ontario, August 1998. Dorval, Quebec (Solicitation No. 87055-7-5010/1)Google Scholar

Books and Reviews

  1. Voegtlin C, Hodge HC (eds) (1953) Pharmacology and toxicology of uranium compounds chronic inhalation and other studies. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.EcoMetrix IncorporatedMississaugaCanada