Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

2012 Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Green Chemistry with Microwave Energy

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0851-3_238

Definition of the Subject

Green chemistry utilizes a set of 12 principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture, and applications of chemical products [1]. This newer chemical approach protects the environment by inventing safer and eco-friendly chemical processes that prevent pollution “at source” rather than cleaning up “end-of-the-pipe” by-products and pollutants generated by traditional synthesis. The diverse nature of our chemical universe promotes a need for various greener strategic pathways in our quest to attain sustainability. The synthetic chemical community has been under increased pressure to produce, in an environmentally benign fashion, the myriad of chemical entities required by society in relatively short spans of time. This is especially true for the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries. Among others, one of the best options is to accelerate these synthetic processes by using microwave...

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    Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2008) Ring-fused aminals: catalyst and solvent-free microwave-assisted α-amination of nitrogen heterocycles. Tetrahedron Lett 49:7165–7167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Varma RS, Naicker KP, Liesen PJ (1998) Microwave-accelerated crossed Cannizzaro reaction using barium hydroxide under solvent-free conditions. Tetrahedron Lett 3:8437–8440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Pillai UR, Sahle-Demessie E, Namboodiri VV, Varma RS (2002) An efficient and ecofriendly oxidation of alkenes using iron nitrate and molecular oxygen. Green Chem 4:495–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Kumar D, Chandra Sekhar KVG, Dhillon H, Rao VS, Varma RS (2004) An expeditious synthesis of 1-aryl-4-methyl-1, 2, 4-triazolo [4, 3-a] quinoxalines under solvent-free conditions using iodobenzene diacetate. Green Chem 6:156–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Kumar D, Sundaree MS, Patel G, Rao VS, Varma RS (2006) Solvent-free facile synthesis of novel α-tosyloxy β-keto sulfones using [hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo] benzene. Tetrahedron Lett 47:8239–8241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Varma RS (2008) Chemical activation by mechanochemical mixing, microwave, and ultrasonic irradiation. Green Chem 10:1129–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Ju Y, Kumar D, Varma RS (2006) Revisiting nucleophilic substitution reactions: microwave-assisted synthesis of azides, thiocyanates, and sulfones in an aqueous medium. J Org Chem 71:6697–6700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Namboodiri VV, Varma RS (2001) Microwave-accelerated Suzuki cross-coupling reaction in polyethylene glycol (PEG). Green Chem 3:146–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Keh CCK, Namboodiri VV, Varma RS, Li C-J (2002) Direct formation of tetrahydropyranols via catalysis in ionic liquid. Tetrahedron Lett 43:4993–4996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Namboodiri VV, Varma RS, Sahle-Demessie E, Pillai UR (2002) Selective oxidation of styrene to acetophenone in the presence of ionic liquids. Green Chem 4:170–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Nadagouda MN, Hoag GE, Collins JB, Varma RS (2009) Green synthesis of Au nanostructures at room temperature using biodegradable plant surfactants. Cryst Growth Des 9:4979–4983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Nadagouda MN, Castle A, Murdock RC, Hussain SM, Varma RS (2010) In vitro biocompatibility of nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI) synthesized using tea polyphenols. Green Chem 12:114–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Moulton MC, Braydich-Stolle LK, Nadagouda MN, Kunzelman S, Hussain SM, Varma RS (2010) Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of “green” synthesized silver nanoparticles using tea polyphenols. Nanoscale 2:763–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Hoag GE, Collins JB, Holcomb JL, Hoag JR, Nadagouda MN, Varma RS (2009) Degradation of bromothymol blue by ‘greener’ nano-scale zerovalent iron synthesized using tea polyphenols. J Mater Chem 19:8671–8677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Virkutyte J, Varma RS (2010) Fabrication and visible-light photocatalytic activity of novel Ag/TiO2−xNx photocatalyst. New J Chem 34:1094–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Books and Reviews

  1. Ahluwalia VK, Varma RS (2008) Alternative energy processes in chemical synthesis microwave, ultrasound and photo activation. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi. ISBN 978-81-7319-848-9Google Scholar
  2. Ahluwalia VK, Varma RS (2009) Green solvents for organic synthesis. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi. ISBN 978-81-7319-964-6Google Scholar
  3. Clark JH, Macquarrie D (2002) Handbook of green chemistry and technology. Blackwell Science, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kappe CO, Stadler A (2005) Microwaves in organic and medicinal chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, p 410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kappe CO, Dallinger D, Murphree SS (2009) Practical microwave synthesis for organic chemists – strategies, instruments, and protocols. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, p 296Google Scholar
  6. Matlack AS (2001) Introduction to green chemistry. Marcel Deckers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Nadagouda MN, Varma RS (2009) Risk reduction via greener synthesis of noble metal nanostructures and nanocomposites. In: Linkov I, Steevens J (eds) Nanomaterials: risks and benefits-proceedings of the NATO advanced workshop. Springer, Faro, pp 209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2009) Environmentally benign chemical synthesis via mechanochemical mixing and microwave irradiation. In: Ballini R (ed) Eco-friendly synthesis of fine chemicals, RSC green chemistry book series. RSC, Cambridge, England, pp 275–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2009) Non-conventional energy sources for green synthesis in water (microwave, ultrasound, and photo). In: Li C-J, Anastas PT (eds) Handbook series, Handbook of green chemistry, Vol. 5: reactions in water. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. ISBN 978-3-527-31574-1Google Scholar
  10. Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (eds) (2010) Aqueous microwave chemistry: synthesis and applications, vol 7, RSC green chemistry series. Royal Society Chemistry, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  11. Strauss CR, Varma RS (2006) Microwaves in green and sustainable chemistry. In: Larhed M, Olofsson K (eds) Microwave methods in organic synthesis, vol 266, Series in topics in current chemistry. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 199–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Varma RS (2000) Environmentally benign organic transformations using microwave irradiation under solvent-free conditions. In: Anastas PT, Tundo P (eds) Green chemistry: challenging perspectives. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 221–244Google Scholar
  13. Varma RS (2000) Expeditious solvent-free organic syntheses using microwave irradiation. In: Anastas PT, Heine L, Williamson T (eds) Green chemical syntheses and processes, Chapter 23, vol 767, ACS symposium series. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 292–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Varma RS (2001) Microwave organic synthesis. In: Geller E (ed) McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology 2002. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 223–225Google Scholar
  15. Varma RS (2006) Microwave technology: chemical synthesis applications. In: Seidel A (ed) Kirk-Othmer on-line encyclopedia of chemical technology, vol 16, 5th edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 538–594Google Scholar
  16. Varma RS, Ju Y (2005) Microwaves in organic synthesis. In: Afonso CAM, Crespo JG (eds) Solventless reactions (SLR), Chapter 2.2. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 53–87Google Scholar
  17. Varma RS, Ju Y (2006) Organic synthesis using microwaves and supported reagents. In: Loupy A (ed) Microwaves in organic sSynthesis, Chapter 8, 2nd edn. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 362–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sustainable Technology DivisionNational Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyCincinnatiUSA