Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

2012 Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Urban Forest Function, Design and Management

  • Kjell Nilsson
  • Cecil C. Konijnendijk
  • Anders Busse Nielsen
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0851-3_218

Definition of the Subject with Brief Historical Background

Land use planners have increasingly been focusing on urban green infrastructure rather than individual green elements. Moreover, politicians, researchers, and practitioners have had to deal with the contributions of this urban green infrastructure to the quality of urban life and environment. They have started to realize that more integrated green area planning and management are required to meet current societal demands when operating in high-pressure environments. This has led to the emergence of new concepts and approaches of a more integrative kind. Urban greening , for example, has developed as the planning and management of all urban vegetation to create or add values to the local community in an urban area [40, 66]. Another more integrative concept resulting from the above-mentioned developments is that of urban forestry.

Urban forestry has become defined as the art, science, and technology of managing trees and forest...


Green space management green structure planning human health and well-being landscape design urban environment urban forestry urban greening urban woodland 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.
    Alvey AA (2006) Promoting and preserving biodiversity in the urban forest. Urban Forest Urban Greening 5:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amati M (ed) (2008) Urban green belts in the twenty-first century. Ashgate, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arnold HF (1993) Trees in urban design, 2nd edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bassuk N, Curtis DF, Marranca BZ, Neal B (2009) Recommended urban trees: site assessment and tree selection for stress tolerance. Urban Horticulture Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bell S, Blom D, Rautamäki M, Castel-Branco C, Simson A, Olsen IA (2005) Design of urban forests. In: Konijnendijk CC, Nilsson K, Randrup TB, Schipperijn J (eds) Urban forests and trees. Springer, Berlin, pp 149–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Benavides Meza HM (1992) Current situation of the urban forests in Mexico City. J Arboric 18:33–36Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bernatzky A (1994) Baumkunde und Baumpflege. Thalacker Verlag, BraunschweigGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bucht E (2002) Traditions in urban park planning and management in Sweden and other European countries. In: Randrup TB, Konijnendijk CC, Christophersen T, Nilsson K (eds) Urban forests and trees, Proceedings No.1. COST Action E12. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, pp 215–226Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dujesiefken D, Dreno C, Oven P, Stobbe H (2005) Arboricultural practices. In: Konijnendijk CC, Nilsson K, Randrup TB, Schipperijn J (eds) Urban forests and trees. Springer, Berlin, pp 419–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dunnet N, Hitchmough J (eds) (2004) The dynamic landscape. Spon Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    EEA (European Environment Agency) (1998) Europe’s environment: the second assessment. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ellefson PV (1992) Forest resources policy: process, participants, and programs. McGraw-Hill, New York etcGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Elmendorf WF, Cotrone VJ, Mullen JT (2003) Trends in urban forestry practices, programs, and sustainability: contrasting a Pennsylvania, US, study. J Arboric 29(4):237–246Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Escobedo F, Chacalo A (2008) Estimación preliminar de la descontaminación atmosférica por parte del arbolado urbano de la Ciudad de México (A preliminary estimate of air pollution removal by Mexico City’s urban forest). Interciencia 33:29–33Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Escobedo FJ, Wagner J, Nowak DJ, de la Maza CL, Rodríguez M, Crane DE (2008) Analyzing the cost-effectiveness of Santiago Chile’s policy of using urban forests to improve air quality. J Environ Manage 86:148–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    European Urban Knowledge Network (2010) European Urban Knowledge Network Web site, http://www.eukn.org. Retrieved 3 March 2010
  17. 17.
    FAO (2006) Urban and peri-urban forestry and greening in West and Central Asia: experiences, constraints and prospects. Compiled by Åkerlund U, Knuth L, Randrup TB, Schipperijn J. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Forestry Commission (1998) England forestry strategy. A new focus for England’s woodlands – strategic priorities and programmes. Forestry Commission, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Forestry Commission (1992) Forest recreation guidelines. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Forrest M (2006) Landscape trees and shrubs, use and management. CABI, WallingfrodGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gill S, Handley J, Ennos R, Pauleit S (2007) Adapting cities for climate change: The role of the green infrastructure. Built Environ 33(1):115–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gobster PH (2007) Models for urban forest restoration: human and environmental values. In: Proceedings of the IUFRO conference on forest landscape restoration, Seoul, Korea, May 14–19, pp 10–13Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gundersen VS, Frivold LH (2008) Public preferences for forest structures: A review of quantitative surveys from Finland, Norway and Sweden. Urban Forest Urban Greening 7:247–258Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gustavsson R (2004) Exploring woodland design: designing with complexity and dynamics – woodland types, their dynamic architecture and establishment. In: Dunnet N, Hitchmough J (eds) The dynamic landscape. Spon Press, London, pp 246–293Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gustavsson R, Hermy M, Konijnendijk CC, Steidle-Schwahn A (2005) Management of Urban Woodland and Parks – Searching for Creative and Sustainable Concepts. In: Konijnendijk CC, Nilsson K, Randrup TB, Schipperijn J (eds) Urban forests and trees. Springer, Berlin, pp 369–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Harris RW (1992) Arboriculture: integrated management of landscape trees, shrubs and vines, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Helms J (ed) (1998) Dictionary of forestry. Society of American Foresters, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hodge SJ (1995) Creating and managing woodlands around towns, vol 11, Forestry Commission Handbook. HMSO Publications Centre, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jensen FS (1995) Forest recreation. In: Hytönen M (ed) Multiple-use forestry in the Nordic countries. The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki, pp 245–278Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jensen MB, Persson B, Guldager S, Reeh U, Nilsson K (2000) Green structure and sustainability – developing a tool for local planning. Landscape Urban Plann 52:117–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jonsell M (2004) Old park trees: a highly desirable resource for both history and beetle diversity. J Arboric 30:238–244Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kaplan R, Kaplan S (1989) The experience of nature. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kleinschmit D, Böcher M, Giesen L (2009) Discourse and expertise in forest and environmental governance – an overview. For Policy Econ 11(5–6):309–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Konijnendijk CC (1999) Urban forestry in Europe: a comparative study of concepts, policies and planning for forest conservation, management and development in and around major European cities. Doctoral dissertation, Research Notes No. 90, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, JoensuuGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Konijnendijk CC (2003) A decade of urban forestry in Europe. For Policy Econ 5(3):173–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Konijnendijk CC (2008) The Forest and the City: the cultural landscape of urban woodland. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Konijnendijk CC, Randrup TB (2004) Urban forestry. In: Burley J, Evans J, Younquist JA (eds) Encyclopedia of forest sciences. Elsevier Science, London, pp 471–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Konijnendijk CC, Sadio S, Randrup TB, Schipperijn J (2004) Urban and peri-urban forestry in a development context – Strategy and implementation. J Arboric 30(5):269–276Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Konijnendijk CC, Nilsson K, Randrup TB, Schipperijn J (2005) Urban forests and trees. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Konijnendijk CC, Ricard RM, Kenney A, Randrup TB (2006) Defining urban forestry – A comparative perspective of North America and Europe. Urban Forest Urban Greening 4(3–4):93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kuchelmeister G (1999) Urbanization in developing countries – time for action for national forest programs and international development cooperation for the urban millennium. Forest policy research forum: the role of national forest programs to ensure sustainable forest management, 14–17 June 1999, Joensuu, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lawrence HW (2006) City trees: a historical geography from the Renaissance through the nineteenth century. University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville & LondonGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Liu L (2009) Status and prospects for urban green structure planning in China – Weihai city as a case study. Forest and landscape research 41/2008. Danish Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning, University of Copenhagen, FrederiksbergGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Longhurst J (2007) Chain reaction. Green Places 2007(36):20–22Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Louv R (2008) Last child in the woods. Algonquin, Chapel HillsGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lucas OWR (1991) Design of forest landscapes. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    McPherson EG (2000) Urban forestry issues in North America and their global linkages. Presentation for the 20th Session of the North American Forestry Commission Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Canada. 12–16 June 2000Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    McPherson EG, Rowntree RA (1993) Energy conservation potential of urban tree planting. J Arboric 19(6):321–331Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Meyer FH (1978) Baüme in der Stadt. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Miller RW (1997) Urban forestry: planning and managing urban greenspaces, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Miller RH, Miller RW (1991) Planting survival of selected street tree taxa. J Arboric 17:185–191Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Moll G (1989) In search of an ecological urban landscape. In: Moll G, Ebenreck S (eds) Shading our cities, a resource guide for urban and community forests. American Forestry Organisation, Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nielsen AB, Jensen RB (2007) Some visual aspects of planting design and silviculture across contemporary forest management paradigms – perspectives for urban afforestation. Urban Forest Urban Greening 6:143–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Nielsen AB, Møller FG (2008) Is coppice a potential for urban forestry? - The social perspective. Urban Forest Urban Greening 7:129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nilsson K, Randrup TB, Wandall B, (2001) Trees in the urban environment. In: Evans J (ed) The forest handbook, vols. 1 and 2. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 347–361 and 260–271Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nilsson K, Baines C, Konijnendijk CC (2007) Health and the natural outdoors, COST Strategic Workshop in Larnaca, Cyprus, Final report. COST, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nowak DJ, Crane DE, Stevens JC, Ibarra M (2002) Brooklyn’s urban forest. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report NE-290, RadnorGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ottitsch A, Krott M (2005) Urban forest policy and planning. In: Konijnendijk CC, Nilsson K, Randrup TB, Schipperijn J (eds) Urban forests and trees. Springer, Berlin, pp 117–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Owen J (1992) The ecology of a garden. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Palijon A (2004) Urban forestry in Asia: state of the art. In: Konijnendijk CC, Schipperijn J, Hoyer KK (eds) Forestry serving urbanised societies. Selected papers from the conference held in Copenhagen, Denmark, 27 to 30 August 2002, vol 14, IUFRO World Series. IUFRO, Vienna, pp 25–40Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pauleit S (2003) Urban street tree plantings: Identifying the key requirements. Proc Inst Civ Eng Munic Eng 156:43–50Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Peters K, Elands B, Buijs A (2010) Social interactions in parks: Stimulating social cohesion? Urban Forest Urban Greening 9(2):93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Pirnat J (2005) Multi-functionality in urban forestry – a dream or a task? In: Konijnendijk CC, Schipperijn J, Nilsson K (eds) Urban forests and trees, Proceedings No. 2. COST Action E12. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, pp 101–118Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Profous GV, Loeb RE (1990) The legal protection of urban trees: a comparative world survey. J Environ Law 2:179–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Randrup TB, Persson B (2008) Public green spaces in the Nordic countries: Development of a new strategic management regime. Urban Forest Urban Greening 8:31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Randrup TB, Konijnendijk C, Kaennel Dobbertin M, Prüller R (2005) The concept of urban forestry in Europe. In: Konijnendijk CC, Nilsson K, Randrup TB, Schipperijn J (eds) Urban forests and trees. Springer, Berlin, pp 9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Roloff A, Korn S, Gillner S (2009) The Climate-Species-Matrix to select tree species for urban habitats considering climate change. Urban Forest Urban Greening 8:295–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ryan J, Simson AJ (2002) Identifying good practice in the design of urban woodlands. Arboricultural J 26:309–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Rydberg J, Falck J (2000) Urban forestry in Sweden from a silvicultural perspective: a review. Landscape Urban Plann 47:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Santamour FS Jr (1990) Trees for urban planting: Diversity, uniformity and common sense. In: Proceedings of the 7th conference of the metropolitan tree improvement alliance, Lisle, pp 57–65Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Schantz P (2006) The formation of National Urban Parks: a Nordic contribution to sustainable development? In: Clark P (ed) The European city and green space: London, Stockholm, Helsinki and St Petersburg, 1850–2000, Historical Urban Studies. Ashgate, Hants, pp 159–174Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Schipperijn J, Pillmann W, Tyrväinen L, Mäkinen K, O’Sullivan R (2005) Information for urban forest planning and management. In: Konijnendijk CC, Nilsson K, Randrup TB, Schipperijn J (eds) Urban forests and trees. Springer, Berlin etc, pp 399–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schmied A, Pillmann W (2003) Tree protection legislation in European cities. Urban Forest Urban Greening 2:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sieghardt M, Mursch-Radlgruber E, Paoletti E, Couenberg E, Dimitrakopolus A, Rego F, Hatzistathis A, Randrup TB (2005) The abiotic urban environment: impact of urban growing conditions on urban vegetation. In: Konijnendijk CC, Nilsson K, Randrup TB, Schipperijn J (eds) Urban forests and trees. Springer, Berlin etc, pp 281–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Simon B (2005) The history of Belvoir Park. In: Simon B (ed) A treasured landscape – the heritage of Belvoir Park. The Forest of Belfast, Belfast, pp 16–42Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Simons K, Johnson GK (2008) The road to a thoughtful street tree master plan – a practical guide to systematic planning and design. http://www.forestry.umn.edu/extension/urban_com/street%20Tree%20manual.REVISED_2008.pdf
  77. 77.
    Sreetheran M, Philip E, Adnan M, Siti Zakiah M (2006) A historical perspective of urban tree planting in Malaysia. Unasylva 57(223):28–33Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Stanners D, Bourdeau P (eds) (1995) Europe’s environment. The Dobris assessment. Europe’s Environment Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sæbø A, Borzan Z, Ducatillion C, Hatzistathis A, Lagerström T, Supuka J, Garcia-Valdecantos JL, Rego F, Slycken JV (2005) Selection of plant materials for street trees, park trees and urban woodland. In: Konijnendijk CC, Nilsson K, Randrup TB, Schipperijn J (eds) Urban forests and trees. Springer, Berlin, pp 257–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tello ML, Tomalak M, Siwecki R, Motta E, Mateo-Sagasta E (2005) Biotic urban growing conditions – threats, pests and diseases. In: Konijnendijk CC, Nilsson K, Randrup TB, Schipperijn J (eds) Urban forests and trees. Springer, Berlin, pp 325–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tyrvainen L (1999) Monetary valuation of urban forest amenities in Finland. Doctoral dissertation. Research Paper No. 739. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tyrväinen L, Pauleit S, Seeland K, de Vries S (2005) Benefits and uses of urban forests and trees. In: Konijnendijk CC, Nilsson K, Randrup TB, Schipperijn J (eds) Urban forests and trees. Springer, Berlin, pp 81–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ulrich RS (1984) View through a window may influence recovery from surgery. Science 224:420–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ulrich RS, Simons RF, Losito BD, Fiorito E, Miles MA, Zelson M (1991) Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. J Environ Psychol 11:201–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Van Herzele A, Collins K, Tyrväinen L (2005) Involving people in urban forestry – a discussion of participatory practices throughout Europe. In: Konijnendijk CC, Nilsson K, Randrup TB, Schipperijn J (eds) Urban forests and trees – a reference book. Springer, Berlin, pp 207–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Williams NSG, Schwartz MW, Vesk PA, Mccarthy MA, Hahs AK, Clemants SE, Corlett RT, Duncan RP, Norton BA, Thompson K, Mcdonnell MJ (2008) A conceptual framework for predicting the effects of urban environments on floras. J Ecol 97:4–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    World Resources Institute (2001) Earthtrends: the environmental information portal. World Resources Institute, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Yang J, McBride J, Zhou JX, Sun ZY (2005) The urban forest in Beijing and its role in air pollution reduction. Urban Forest Urban Greening 3:65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Zipperer WC, Wu J, Pouyat RV, Pickett S (2000) The application of ecological principles to urban and urbanizing landscapes. Ecol Appl 10:685–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Larsen JB (2000) From plantation management to nature-based silviculture – a Danish perspective, Third International Congress on Sustainability in Time and Space. Pro Silva Europe 187Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kjell Nilsson
    • 1
  • Cecil C. Konijnendijk
    • 1
  • Anders Busse Nielsen
    • 2
  1. 1.Danish Centre for Forest, Landscape and PlanningUniversity of CopenhagenFrederiksberg CDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Landscape Management, Design and ConstructionSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesAlnarpSweden