Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

2012 Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Green Infrastructure and Climate Change

  • Stephan Pauleit
  • Ole Fryd
  • Antje Backhaus
  • Marina Bergen Jensen
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0851-3_212

Definition of the Subject

By 2050, two-thirds of the world’s population will live in cities. Already today, cities of the developed world are a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, cities need to make serious efforts to mitigate climate change. Urban planning can play a major role in this respect by designing compact, low footprint cities. However, climate change will also make a severe impact on cities mostly by intensification of the heat-island effect, increase of surface runoff from more frequent and intense rainstorms, and by coastal and riverine flooding. Urban planning will play an important role for development and implementation of integrated strategies for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Notably, “green infrastructure ” can assist in adapting cities to climate change by reducing the urban heat-island effect and by managing stormwater runoff. Urban greening , such as planting of shade trees and roof greening, can also reduce the energy demand for...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

Bibliography

Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007) Climate change 2007: synthesis report. Contribution of working groups I, II and III to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change [Core Writing Team, Pachauri RK, Reisinger A (eds)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, p 104Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Parry M, Carter T (1998) Climate impact and adaptation assessment. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    MEA (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment) (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Island, London. http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.356.aspx.pdf. Accessed 4 Nov 2010
  4. 4.
    Alberti M (2008) Advances in urban ecology. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pauleit S, Breuste JH (2011) Land use and surface cover as urban ecological indicators. In: Niemelä J (ed) Handbook of urban ecology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 19–30Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    US Geological Survey (2010) The water cycle: evapotranspiration. http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevapotranspiration.html. Accessed 6 May 2010
  7. 7.
    Lyr H, Fiedler H-J, Tranquilini W (1992) Physiologie und Ökologie der Gehölze. G. Fischer Verlag, Jena & StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Benedict MA, McMahon ET (2006) Green infrastructure: linking landscapes and communities. Island, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ahern J (2007) Green infrastructure for cities: the spatial dimension. In: Brown P, Novotny V (eds) Cities of the future: towards integrated sustainable water and landscape management. IWA Publishers, London, pp 267–283Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pauleit S, Liu L, Ahern J, Kazmierczak A (2011) Multifunctional green infrastructure planning to promote ecological services in the city. In: Niemelä J (ed) Handbook of urban ecology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 272–285Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Holling CS (1973) Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 4:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gunderson LH, Holling CS, Light SS (1995) Barriers broken and bridges built: a synthesis. In: Gunderson LH (ed) Barriers and bridges to the renewal of ecosystems and institutions. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 489–532Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2001) Climate change 2001. Overview of impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability to climate change. Working group II contribution to the third assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, p 89Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    United Nations (2008) World urbanization prospects: the 2007 revision. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Angel S, Sheppard SC, Civco DL (2005) The dynamics of global urban expansion. Transport and urban development department. The World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    O’Meara M (1999) Reinventing cities for people and the planet, Worldwatch Paper, 147. Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC, p 94Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Oke TR (1997) Urban climates and global change. In: Perry A, Thompson R (eds) Applied climatology: principles and practice. Routledge, London, pp 273–287Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Satterthwaite D (2008) Cities’ contribution to global warming: notes on the allocation of greenhouse gas emissions. Environment and Urbanization 20:539–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hunt A, Watkiss P (2007) Literature review on climate change impacts on urban city centres: initial findings. OECD Working Paper ENV/EPOC/GSP(2007)10/FINAL. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/52/50/39760257.pdf. Accessed 31 May 2010
  20. 20.
    Blanco H, Alberti M (2009) Building capacity to adapt to climate change through planning. In: Blanco H, Alberti M, Forsyth A, Krizek KJ, Rodrıguez DA, Talen E, Ellis C (eds) Hot, congested, crowded and diverse: emerging research agendas in planning. Prog Plan 71:158–169Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Newman P, Kenworthy JR (1989) Sustainability and cities: overcoming automobile dependence. Island, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    EEA (European Environment Agency) (2006) Urban sprawl in Europe. The ignored challenge. EEA Report No 10/2006. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nilsson K, Nielsen TS, Pauleit S (2008) Integrated European research on sustainable development and peri-urban landuse relationships. Urbanistica 138:106–109Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Haase D (2011) Processes and impacts of urban shrinkage and response by planning. In: Encyclopedia of sustainability science and technology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wilby RL (2007) A review of climate change impacts on the built environment. Built Environ 33(1):31–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Crichton D (2001) The implications of climate change for the insurance industry – an update and outlook to 2020. BRE, WatfordGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    SoU (Swedish Commission on Climate and Vulnerability) (2007) Sweden facing climate change – threats and opportunities. Swedish Government Official Reports SOU 2007:60. Swedish Commission on Climate and Vulnerability, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    EEA (European Environment Agency) (2008) Impacts of Europe’s changing climate – 2008 indicator-based assessment. EEA Report No 4/2008. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    McGranahan G, Balk D, Anderson B (2007) The rising tide: assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones. Environment and Urbanization 19(1):17–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    O’Brien K, Eriksen S, Sygna L, Nygaard L (2007) Why different interpretations of vulnerability matter in climate change discourses. Clim Policy 7:73–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kelly PM, Adger WN (2000) Theory and practice in assessing vulnerability to climate change and facilitating adaptation. Clim Change 47:325–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bridgeman H, Warner R, Dodson J (1995) Urban biophysical environments. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lindley SJ, Handley JF, Theuray N, Peet E, Mcevoy D (2006) Adaptation strategies for climate change in the urban environment: assessing climate change related risk in UK urban areas. J Risk Res 9(5):543–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    O’Brien K, Sygna L, Haugen JE (2004) Vulnerable or resilient a multi-scale assessment of climate impacts and vulnerability in Norway. Clim Change 64:193–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mehrotra S, Natenzon CE, Omojola A, Folorunsho R, Gilbride J, Rosenzweig C (2009) Framework for city climate risk assessment. In: Fifth urban research symposium 2009, Marseille, June 28–30, 2009. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTURBANDEVELOPMENT/Resources/336387-1256566800920/6505269-1268260567624/Rosenzweig.pdf. Accessed 31 May 2010
  36. 36.
    Blanco H, Alberti M, Forsyth A, Krizek KJ, Rodrıguez DA, Talen E, Ellis C (2009) Hot, congested, crowded and diverse: emerging research agendas in planning. Prog Plan 71:153–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chiesura A (2004) The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landscape Urban Plan 68:129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tyrväinen L, Pauleit S, Seeland K, de Vries S (2005) Benefits and uses of urban forests and trees: a European perspective. In: Konijnendijk CC, Nilsson K, Randrup TB, Schipperijn J (eds) Urban forests and trees in Europe – a reference book. Springer, Berlin, pp 81–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tzoulas K, Korpela K, Venn S, Yli-Pelkonen V, Kazmierczak A, Niemela J, James P (2007) Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using green infrastructure: a literature review. Landscape Urban Plan 81(3):167–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Whitford V, Ennos AR, Handley JF (2001) “City form and natural process” – indicators for the ecological performance of urban areas and their application to Merseyside, UK. Landscape Urban Plan 57(2):91–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gartland L (2008) Heat islands. Understanding and mitigating heat islands in urban areas. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nowak DJ (2002) The effects of urban forests on the physical environment. In: Randrup TB, Konijnendijk CC, Christophersen T, Nilsson K (eds) COST action E12 urban forests and urban trees. Proceedings No. 1. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, pp 22–42Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Girardet H (2004) Cities people planet: liveable cities for a sustainable world. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Landsberg HE (1981) The urban climate. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Oke TR (1987) Boundary layer climates, 2nd edn. Routledge, London, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Akbari H, Pomerantz M, Taha H (2001) Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas. Sol Energy 70(3):295–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Robine JM, Cheung SL, Le Roy S, Van Oyen H, Herrmann SR (2008) Report on excess mortality in Europe during summer 2003. EU Community Action Programme for Public Health, Grant Agreement 2005114. http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_projects/2005/action1/docs/action1_2005_a2_15_en.pdf. Accessed 27 Jan 10
  48. 48.
    USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) (2001) Inside the greenhouse: a state and local resource on global warming. USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Robel F, Hoffmann U, Riekert A (1978) Daten und Aussagen zum Stadtklima von Stuttgart auf der Grundlage der InfrarotThermographie. Beiträge zur Stadtentwicklung Nr. 15. Landeshauptstadt StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Taha H (1997) Urban climates and heat islands: albedo, evapotranspiration, and anthropogenic heat. Energy Build 25(2):99–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    von Stülpnagel A (1987) Klimatische Veränderungen in Ballungsgebieten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Ausgleichswirkung von Grünflächen, dargestellt am Beispiel von Berlin (West). Unpublished PhD thesis, TU Berlin, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Eliasson I, Upmanis H (2000) Nocturnal air flow from urban parks – implications for city ventilation. Theor Appl Climatol 66:95–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Handley J (2006) Adaptation strategies for climate change in the urban environment (ASCCUE). In: Walsh CL, Hall JW, Street RB, Blanksby J, Cassar M, Ekins P, Glendinning S, Goodess CM, Handley J, Noland R, Watson SJ (eds) Building knowledge for a changing climate: collaborative research to understand and adapt to the impacts of climate change on infrastructure, the built environment and utilities. Newcastle University, March 2007, pp 44–53. http://www.ukcip.org.uk/images/stories/Pub_pdfs/BKCC-Results.pdf. Accessed 11 April 2010
  54. 54.
    Gill S, Handley J, Ennos R, Pauleit S (2007) Adapting cities for climate change: the role of the green infrastructure. Built Environ 30(1):97–115Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gill S, Handley J, Pauleit S, Ennos R, Theuray N, Lindley S (2008) Characterising the urban environment of UK cities and towns: a template for landscape planning in a changing climate. Landscape Urban Plan 87:210–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Matzarakis A, Mayer H, Iziomon M (1999) Applications of a universal thermal index: physiological equivalent temperature. Int J Biometeorol 43:76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dousset B, Gourmelon F, Laaidi K, Zeghnoun A, Giraudet E, Bretin P, Vandentorren S (2009) Satellite monitoring of summertime heat waves in the Paris metropolitan area. In: The seventh international conference on urban climate, 29 June – 3 July 2009, Yokohama, Japan. http://www.ide.titech.ac.jp/~icuc7/extended_abstracts/pdf/384388-1-090518140731-002.pdf. Accessed 31 May 2010
  58. 58.
    BETWIXT (2005) Built EnviromenT: weather scenarios for investigation of impacts and eXTremes. Daily time-series output and figures from the CRU weather generator [online].http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/projects/betwixt/cruwg_daily/. Accessed 30 June 2008
  59. 59.
    Watts M, Goodess CM, Jones PD (2004) The CRU daily weather generator. Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, NorwichGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Burkhardt I, Dietrich R, Hoffmann H, Leschnar J, Lohmann K, Schoder F, Schultz A (2008) Urbane Wälder. Bundesamt für Naturschutz (eds), Naturschutz und Biologische Vielfalt, 63. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, pp 214Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pauleit S, Golding Y, Ennos R (2005) Modeling the environmental impacts of urban land use and land cover change – a study in Merseyside, UK. Landscape Urban Plan 71(2–4):295–310Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Perry T, Nawaz R (2008) An investigation into the extent and impacts of hard surfacing of domestic gardens in an area of Leeds, United Kingdom. Landscape Urban Plan 86:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Madsen H, Arnbjerg-Nielsen K, Mikkelsen PS (2009) Update of regional intensity–duration–frequency curves in Denmark: tendency towards increased storm intensities. Atmos Res 92(3):343–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    DMI (Danish Meteorological Institute) (2007) Klimaet i Danmark i 2100 i forhold til 1990 for A2- og B2-scenarierne. http://www.dmi.dk/dmi/index/klima/fremtidens_klima-2/aendringer_i_danmark.htm. Accessed 11 April 2010 (in Danish)
  65. 65.
    Arnbjerg-Nielsen K (2008) Forventede ændringer i ekstremregn som følge af klimaændringer. Spildevandskomiteen, Skrift nr. 29, IDA Spildevandskomiteen, Danish Society of Engineers, Copenhagen (in Danish)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rambøll (2008) Kommunernes investeringsbehov i forbindelse med klimatilpasning og veje. Local Government Denmark, Copenhagen. http://www.ramboll-management.dk/news/~/media/Images/RM/RM%20DK%20and%20RM%20Group/PDF/Publications/2009/KommunernesInvesteringsbehovIforbindelseMedKlimatilpasningOgVeje.ashx. Accessed 11 April 2010 (in Danish)
  67. 67.
    Butler D, Parkinson J (1997) Towards sustainable urban drainage. Water Sci Technol 35(9):53–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chocat B, Ashley R, Marsalek J, Matos MR, Rauch W, Schilling W, Urbonas B (2007) Toward the sustainable management of urban storm-water. Indoor Built Environ 16(3):273–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Marsalek J, Chocat B (2002) International report: stormwater management. Water Sci Technol 46(6–7):1–17Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Coombes PJ, Argue JR, Kuczera G (2000) Figtree place: a case study in water sensitive urban development (WSUD). Urban Water 1(4):335–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wong THF (2006) An overview of water sensitive urban design practices in Australia. Water Pract Technol 1(1)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Geiger WF, Dreiseitl H (1995) Neue Wege für das Regenwasser. R. Oldenbourg Verlag, MunichGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Beenen T, Boogaard FC (2007) Lessons from 10 years storm water infiltration in the Dutch Delta. In: Proceedings of the 6th international conference on sustainable techniques and strategies in urban water management, Novatech 2007, June 25–28 2007, Lyon, pp 1139–1146Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Scholz M (2006) Best management practice: a sustainable urban drainage system management case study. Water Int 31(3):310–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Stahre P (2006) Sustainability in urban storm drainage: planning and examples. Svenskt Vatten, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bengtsson L (2002) Avrinning från gröna tak (runoff from greenroofs). Vatten 58:245–250Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Villarreal EL, Semadeni-Davies A, Bengtsson L (2004) Inner city stormwater control using a combination of best management practices. Ecol Eng 22:279–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Beneke G (2003) Regenwasser in Stadt und Landschaft – Vom Stückwerk zur Raumentwicklung – Plädoyer für eine Umorientierung. Beiträge zur Rümlichen Planung – Schriftenreihe des Fachbereichs Landschaftsarchitektur und Umweltentwicklung der Universität Hannover Heft 70Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Fryd O, Backhaus A, Jeppesen J, Ingvertsen ST, Birch H, Bergman M, Petersen TEP, Fratini C (2009) Koblede afkoblinger. http://www.2bg.dk/Internal_Workshop/2009-12-03-KE/2BG_HarrestrupAa_Booklet_web.pdf. Accessed 11 April 2010 (in Danish)
  80. 80.
    Turenscape (2004) Yongning river park, Taizhou city. http://www.turenscape.com/English/projects/projectphp?id=323. Accessed 6 June 2010
  81. 81.
    Stokman A, von Seggern H, Rabe S, Schmidt A, Werne J, Zeller S (2008) Wasseratlas: Wasserland-Topologien für die Hamburger Elbinsel. Jovis Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mathur A, da Cunha D (2009) SOAK – Mumbai in an estuary. Rupa, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    van Nieuwenhuijze L (2006) (Hoog)water als uitdaging Meervoudig gebruik van de dijk en het buitendijkse gebied: wie durft? Report developed by H + N + S Landscape Architects, Utrecht. (in Dutch). http://www.hns-land.nl/images/stories/Publicaties/hoogwaterstrategie72dpi.pdf. Accessed 6 June 2010
  84. 84.
    Dreiseitl H (2009) Bishan park, Singapore. http://www.dreiseitl.net/index.php?id= 525&lang = en&choice = 58&ansicht = text. Accessed 05 June 2010
  85. 85.
    Mathur A, de Cunha D (2001) Mississippi floods: designing a shifting landscape. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    City of Los Angeles (2007) Los Angeles river revitalization master plan. http://www.lariverrmp.org/CommunityOutreach/masterplan_download.htm. Accessed 11 April 2010
  87. 87.
    Rinaldi BM (2007) Landscapes of metropolitan hedonism. The cheonggyecheon linear park in Seoul. J Landscape Archit 2007:60–73Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Nyhuus S (2005) Oslo. In: Werquin AC, Duhem B, Lindholm G, Oppermann B, Pauleit S, Tjallingii S (eds) Green structure and urban planning. Final report. COST Action C11, European Commission, Brussels, pp 184–191. http://www.greenstructureplanning.eu/COSTC11-book/. Accessed 11 April 2010
  89. 89.
    Attwell K (2005) Green planning as a prerequisite for urban development in Aarhus, Denmark. In: Werquin AC, Duhem B, Lindholm G, Oppermann B, Pauleit S, Tjallingii S (eds) Green structure and urban planning. Final report. COST Action C11, European Commission, Brussels, pp 345–351. http://www.greenstructureplanning.eu/COSTC11-book/. Accessed 11 April 2010
  90. 90.
    Oppermann B (2005) Redesign of the river Isar in Munich, Germany. Getting coherent quality for green structures through competitive process design? In: Werquin AC, Duhem B, Lindholm G, Oppermann B, Pauleit S, Tjallingii S (eds) Green structure and urban planning. Final report. COST Action C11, European Commission, Brussels, pp 372–378. http://www.greenstructureplanning.eu/COSTC11-book/. Accessed 11 April 2010
  91. 91.
    City of Melbourne (2009) Zero net emissions by 2020 – update 2008. http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/Environment/WhatCouncilisDoing/Documents/zero_net_emissions_2020.pdf. Accessed 11 April 2010
  92. 92.
    Kågeson P (2005) Reducing CO2 emissions from new cars. European federation for transport and environment, Brussels, p 10. http://www.gronabilister.se/grafik/dynamiskapdf/20050124210807.pdf. Accessed 11 April 2010
  93. 93.
    New York City (2010) Million trees NYC. New York City Department of Parks & Recreation and New York Restoration Project. http://www.milliontreesnyc.org/html/urban_forest/urban_forest_benefits.shtml. Accessed 11 April 2010
  94. 94.
    Morse SC (1978) Trees in the town environment. J Arboric 4:1–6Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Foster R, Blaine J (1978) Urban trees survival: trees in the side-walk. J Arboric 4:14–17Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Pauleit S, Jones N, Garcia-Marin G, Garcia-Valdecantos J-L, Rivière LM, Vidal-Beaudet L, Bodson M, Randrup TB (2002) Tree establishment practice in towns and cities – results from a European survey. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 1(2):83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bradshaw A, Hunt B, Walmsley T (1995) Trees in the urban landscape. Principles and Practice, Spon, LondonGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Nowak DJ, Stevens JC, Sisinni SM, Luley CJ (2002) Effects of urban tree management and species selection on atmospheric carbon dioxide. J Arboric 28(3):113–122Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Heisler G (1986) Energy savings with trees. J Arboric 12(5):113–125Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Huang J, Ritschard R, Sampson N, Taha H (1992) The benefits of urban trees. In: Akbari H, Davis S, Dorsano S, Huang J, Winnett S (eds) Cooling our communities. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, pp 27–42Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Jo HK, McPherson EG (2001) Indirect carbon reduction by residential vegetation and planting strategies in Chicago, USA. J Environ Manage 61:165–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Akbari H, Kurn DM, Bretz SE, Hanford JW (1997) Peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees. Energy Build 25:139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Santamouris M, Pavloua C, Doukasa P, Mihalakakoub G, Synnefaa A, Hatzibirosa A, Patargias P (2007) Investigating and analysing the energy and environmental performance of an experimental green roof system installed in a nursery school building in Athens, Greece. Energy 32(9):1781–1788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Saiz S, Kennedy C, Bass B, Pressnail K (2006) Comparative life cycle assessment of standard and green roofs. Environ Sci Technol 40:4312–4316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Brown DE, Fox M, Pelletier MR (eds) (2001) Sustainable architecture white papers. Earth Pledge Foundation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Jodidio P (2009) Green architecture now! Taschen, CologneGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wilby RL, Perry GLW (2006) Climate change, biodiversity and the urban environment: a critical review based on London, UK. Prog Phys Geogr 30(1):73–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Sauerwein M (2011) Urban soils – characterization, pollution and relevance in urban ecosystems. In: Niemelä J (ed) Handbook of urban ecology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 45–58Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bühler O, Nielsen CN, Kristoffersen P (2006) Growth and phenology of established Tilia cordata street trees in response to different irrigation regimes. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 32(1):3–9Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Roloff A, Korn S, Gillner S (2009) The climate-species-matrix to select tree species for urban habitats considering climate change. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 8:295–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Alvem B-M, Bennerscheidt C (2009) Baumstandortoptimierung und Regenwasserbewirtschaftung – Chancen für ein gemeinsames Vorgehen. In: Dujesiefken D (ed) Jahrbuch der Baumpflege 2009. Taspo Fachbuchservice, Braunschweig, pp 70–78Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    James P, Tzoulas K, Adams MD, Annett P, Barber A, Box J, Breuste J, Cooper I, Curwell SR, Elmqvist T, Flood T, Frith M, Gledhill DG, Goode D, Gordon C, Greening KL, Handley J, Harding S, Haworth S, Hesketh F, Home R, Johnston M, Kazmierczak AE, Korpela K, Leeks G, Leeks G, Morley E, Nail S, Niemelä J, Moretti M, Stein N, Pauleit S, Powell JA, Radford KG, Richardson D, Roe MH, Sadler JP, Selman P, Scott AV, Snep R, Stern N, Timmermans W, Ward-Thompson C (2009) Urban green – towards an integrated understanding of greenspace in the built environment. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 8(2):65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Brown RR, Farrelly MA (2009) Challenges ahead – social and institutional factors influencing sustainable urban stormwater management in Australia. Water Sci Technol 59(4):653–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    van der Brugge R (2009) Transition dynamics in social-ecological systems: the case of Dutch water management. PhD thesis, Erasmus University, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Roy AE, Wenger SJ, Fletcher TD, Walsh CJ, Ladson AR, Shuster WD, Thurston HW, Brown RR (2008) Impediments and solutions to sustainable, watershed-scale urban stormwater management: lessons from Australia and the United States. Environ Manage 42(2):344–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Handley J (2007) Planning for climate change. Unpubl. Presentation given at the “Future of Cities” 51st international federation for housing programmes (IFHP), World Congress, Copenhagen, Sept 22–26 2007Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    CEC (Commission of the European Communities) (2007) Green paper on adapting to climate change in Europe – options for EU action. Brussels, 29.6.2007. COM(2007) 354 finalGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Voogt JA (2004) Urban heat islands: hotter cities. ActionBioscience.org, American Institute of Biological Sciences. http://www.actionbioscience.org/environment/voogt.html. Accessed 07 May 2010
  119. 119.
    Sieker F (Hrsg) (1998) Naturnahe Regenwasserbewirtschaftung, Reihe Stadtökologie, Bd. 1, Analytica Verlagsgesellschaft, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Gill S (2006) Climate change and urban greenspace. Unpublished PhD thesis, School of Environment and Development, University of Manchester, ManchesterGoogle Scholar

Books and Reviews

  1. Akbari H, Davis S, Dorsano S, Huang J, Winnett S (eds) (1992) Cooling our communities – a guidebook on tree planting and light-colored painting. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. Woods-Ballard B, Kellagher R, Martin P, Jefferies C, Bray R, Shaffer P, Kellagher R (2007) The SUDS manual (C697). Construction Industry Research & Information Association (CIRIA), LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephan Pauleit
    • 1
  • Ole Fryd
    • 2
  • Antje Backhaus
    • 2
  • Marina Bergen Jensen
    • 2
  1. 1.Center of Life and Food Sciences WeihenstephanTechnical University of MunichFreisingGermany
  2. 2.Forest and Landscape DenmarkUniversity of CopenhagenFrederiksberg CDenmark