Survivin is abundantly and ubiquitously present in development, undetectable in most adult tissues, and prominently reexpressed in virtually every human cancer. Thus, one of the most significant features of survivin is its preferential expression in tumor vs. normal tissues. Even though a few normal cells do express survivin, e.g., thymocytes, CD34+ bone marrow-derived stem cells, and basal colonic epithelial cells (Altieri, Nat Rev Cancer 3:46–54, 2003), under physiological conditions, survivin is undetectable in most terminally differentiated normal tissues (Altieri et al., Lab Invest 79:1327–1333, 1999). In contrast, survivin is overexpressed in almost all cancers including lung, colon, breast, pancreas, stomach, liver, ovaries, and prostate cancer, as well as melanoma and hematopoietic malignancies (Ambrosini et al., J Biol Chem 273:11177–11182, 1998; Adida et al., Blood 96:1921–1925, 2000; Grossman et al., J Invest Dermatol 113:1076–1081, 1999). Data from a large analysis of human transcripts revealed survivin as the fourth most highly expressed protein in human cancer tissue compared to normal tissue (Velculescu et al., Nat Genet 23:387–388, 1999).
KeywordsSurvivin Anti-survivin T cells Apoptosis inhibition Apoptosis proteins Chemotherapeutic agents Immunogenicity Immunohistochemistry In cancers In tumor vs. normal tissues Inhibitory T-cell ligand B7-H1 Regulation of mitosis Standard immunohistochemistry Synthetic peptides Therapeutic vaccinations Vaccination Vs. T-cell responses
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