Endometrial Carcinoma

  • Lora Hedrick EllensonEmail author
  • Brigitte M. Ronnett
  • Robert A. Soslow
  • Richard J. Zaino
  • Robert J. Kurman
Reference work entry


Endometrial carcinoma is the most common invasive neoplasm of the female genital tract and the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in women in the USA. In 2008, it is estimated there will have been 40,100 new cases and 7,470 deaths resulting from this neoplasm. These figures represent an estimated 6% of the new cancer cases and 3% of the cancer deaths in women [377]. Worldwide, approximately 150,000 cases are diagnosed each year, making endometrial carcinoma the fifth most common cancer in women [304, 305]. The incidence of endometrial cancer varies widely throughout the world. The highest rates occur in North America and Europe, whereas rates in developing countries and Japan are four to five times lower. The incidence is also about twice as high in whites compared to blacks. However, the proportion of endometrial cancer related deaths is higher in blacks due to a relative increase in the incidence of high-risk endometrial carcinoma in the black population. The reason for this is not well understood but access to and quality of health care as well as genetics are considered possible factors [17].


Endometrial Cancer Endometrial Carcinoma Clear Cell Carcinoma Serous Carcinoma Myometrial Invasion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    The Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study of the Centers for Disease Control and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (1987) Combination oral contraceptive use and the risk of endometrial cancer. JAMA 257:796–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abeler VM, Kjorstad KE (1991) Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a histopathological and clinical study of 97 cases. Gynecol Oncol 40:207–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abeler VM, Kjorstad KE (1991) Endometrial adenocarcinoma in Norway. A study of the total population. Cancer 67:3093–3103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abeler VM, Kjorstad KE (1992) Endometrial adenocarcinoma with squamous cell differentiation. Cancer 69:488–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abeler VM, Kjorstad KE (1990) Serous papillary carcinoma of the endometrium: a histopathological study of 22 cases. Gynecol Oncol 39:266–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abeler VM, Kjorstad KE, Berle E (1992) Carcinoma of the endometrium in Norway: a histopathological and prognostic survey of a total population. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2:9–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Abeler VM et al (1996) Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Prognosis and metastatic pattern. Cancer 78:1740–1747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Abu-Rustum NR et al (2008) Is there a therapeutic impact to regional lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of endometrial carcinoma? Am J Obstet Gynecol 198:457 e1–e5; discussion 457 e5–e6Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Acs G, Pasha T, Zhang PJ (2004) WT1 is differentially expressed in serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous carcinomas of the peritoneum, fallopian tube, ovary, and endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol 23:110–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Al Kushi A et al (2002) Markers of proliferative activity are predictors of patient outcome for low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma but not papillary serous carcinoma of endometrium. Mod Pathol 15:365–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alberhasky RC, Connelly PJ, Christopherson WM (1982) Carcinoma of the endometrium. IV. Mixed adenosquamous carcinoma. A clinical-pathological study of 68 cases with long-term follow-up. Am J Clin Pathol 77:655–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alexander-Sefre F et al (2004) Clinical value of immunohistochemically detected lymphovascular invasion in endometrioid endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 92:653–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ali A, Black D, Soslow RA (2007) Difficulties in assessing the depth of myometrial invasion in endometrial carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 26:115–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alkushi A et al (2005) Description of a novel system for grading of endometrial carcinoma and comparison with existing grading systems. Am J Surg Pathol 29:295–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Alkushi A et al (2007) Identification of prognostically relevant and reproducible subsets of endometrial adenocarcinoma based on clustering analysis of immunostaining data. Mod Pathol 20:1156–1165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Alkushi A et al (2004) Interpretation of p53 immunoreactivity in endometrial carcinoma: establishing a clinically relevant cut-off level. Int J Gynecol Pathol 23:129–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Allard JE, Maxwell GL (2009) Race disparities between black and white women in the incidence, treatment, and prognosis of endometrial cancer. Cancer Control 16:53–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Altrabulsi B et al (2005) Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Endometrium. Am J Surg Pathol 29:1316–1321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Amant F et al (2005) Endometrial carcinosarcomas have a different prognosis and pattern of spread compared to high-risk epithelial endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 98:274–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Amant F et al (2002) PTEN mutations in uterine sarcomas. Gynecol Oncol 85:165–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ambros RA, Kurman RJ (1992) Combined assessment of vascular and myometrial invasion as a model to predict prognosis in stage I endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus. Cancer 69:1424–1431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ambros RA, Kurman RJ (1992) Identification of patients with stage I uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma at high risk of recurrence by DNA ploidy, myometrial invasion, and vascular invasion. Gynecol Oncol 45:235–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ambros RA et al (1995) Endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma: a distinctive lesion specifically associated with tumors displaying serous differentiation. Hum Pathol 26:1260–1267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    An HJ et al (2004) Molecular characterization of uterine clear cell carcinoma. Mod Pathol 17:530–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Andersson M, Storm HH, Mouridsen HT (1991) Incidence of new primary cancers after adjuvant tamoxifen therapy and radiotherapy for early breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 83:1013–1017PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ansari-Lari MA et al (2004) Distinction of endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinomas: immunohistochemical p16 expression correlated with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection. Am J Surg Pathol 28:160–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Aquino-Parsons C et al (1998) Papillary serous and clear cell carcinoma limited to endometrial curettings in FIGO stage 1a and 1b endometrial adenocarcinoma: treatment implications. Gynecol Oncol 71:83–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Arends JW et al (1984) Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with glassy-cell features – immunohistochemical observations. Histopathology 8:873–879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Arnett-Mansfield RL et al (2001) Relative expression of progesterone receptors A and B in endometrioid cancers of the endometrium. Cancer Res 61:4576–4582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Arrastia CD et al (1997) Uterine carcinosarcomas: incidence and trends in management and survival. Gynecol Oncol 65:158–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ashton KA et al (2009) Estrogen receptor polymorphisms and the risk of endometrial cancer. BJOG 116:1053–1061PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Austin H, Drews C, Partridge EE (1993) A case-control study of endometrial cancer in relation to cigarette smoking, serum estrogen levels, and alcohol use. Am J Obstet Gynecol 169:1086–1091PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ayhan A et al (2004) The long-term survival of women with surgical stage II endometrioid type endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 93:9–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Backe J et al (1997) p53 protein in endometrial cancer is related to proliferative activity and prognosis but not to expression of p21 protein. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16:361–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Backe J et al (1997) Immunohistochemically detected HER-2/neu-expression and prognosis in endometrial carcinoma. Arch Gynecol Obstet 259:189–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Barakat RR et al (1994) Tamoxifen use in breast cancer patients who subsequently develop corpus cancer is not associated with a higher incidence of adverse histologic features. Gynecol Oncol 55:164–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Barwick KW, LiVolsi VA (1979) Malignant mixed mullerian tumors of the uterus. A clinicopathologic assessment of 34 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 3:125–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Beckner ME, Mori T, Silverberg SG (1985) Endometrial carcinoma: nontumor factors in prognosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 4:131–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Beral V et al (1999) Use of HRT and the subsequent risk of cancer. J Epidemiol Biostat 4:191–210; discussion 210–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Berchuck A et al (1991) Overexpression of HER-2/neu in endometrial cancer is associated with advanced stage disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 164:15–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bitterman P, Chun B, Kurman RJ (1990) The significance of epithelial differentiation in mixed mesodermal tumors of the uterus. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study. Am J Surg Pathol 14:317–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Boccardo F et al (1992) Chemotherapy versus tamoxifen versus chemotherapy plus tamoxifen in node-positive, oestrogen-receptor positive breast cancer patients. An update at 7 years of the 1st GROCTA (Breast Cancer Adjuvant Chemo-Hormone Therapy Cooperative Group) trial. Eur J Cancer 28:673–680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bodner-Adler B et al (2001) Prognostic parameters in carcinosarcomas of the uterus: a clinico-pathologic study. Anticancer Res 21:3069–3074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bokhman JV (1983) Two pathogenetic types of endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 15:10–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bonatz G et al (1999) Prognostic significance of a novel proliferation marker, anti-repp 86, for endometrial carcinoma: a multivariate study. Hum Pathol 30:949–956PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Boronow RC et al (1984) Surgical staging in endometrial cancer: clinical-pathologic findings of a prospective study. Obstet Gynecol 63:825–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Borst MP et al (1990) Oncogene alterations in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 38:364–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Boyd J, Risinger JI (1991) Analysis of oncogene alterations in human endometrial carcinoma: prevalence of ras mutations. Mol Carcinog 4:189–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Brandenberger AW et al (1999) Oestrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta isoforms in normal endometrial and endometriosis-derived stromal cells. Mol Hum Reprod 5:651–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Brinton LA et al (1992) Reproductive, menstrual, and medical risk factors for endometrial cancer: results from a case-control study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 167:1317–1325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Britton LC et al (1989) Flow cytometric DNA analysis of stage I endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 34:317–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Broaddus RR et al (2006) Pathologic features of endometrial carcinoma associated with HNPCC: a comparison with sporadic endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 106:87–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bukulmez O et al (2008) Inflammatory status influences aromatase and steroid receptor expression in endometriosis. Endocrinology 149:1190–1204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bussaglia E et al (2000) PTEN mutations in endometrial carcinomas: a molecular and clinicopathologic analysis of 38 cases. Hum Pathol 31:312–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Byron SA et al (2008) Inhibition of activated fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 in endometrial cancer cells induces cell death despite PTEN abrogation. Cancer Res 68:6902–6907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Caduff RF, Johnston CM, Frank TS (1995) Mutations of the Ki-ras oncogene in carcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Pathol 146:182–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Callister M et al (2004) Malignant mixed Mullerian tumors of the uterus: analysis of patterns of failure, prognostic factors, and treatment outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 58:786–796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Carcangiu ML, Chambers JT (1992) Uterine papillary serous carcinoma: a study on 108 cases with emphasis on the prognostic significance of associated endometrioid carcinoma, absence of invasion, and concomitant ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 47:298–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Carcangiu ML et al (1990) Immunohistochemical evaluation of estrogen and progesterone receptor content in 183 patients with endometrial carcinoma. Part I: Clinical and histologic correlations. Am J Clin Pathol 94:247–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Carcangiu ML et al (2006) HNPCC-related endometrial carcinomas show a high frequency of non-endometrioid types and of high FIGO grade endometrioid carcinomas. Mod Pathol 19:173AGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Carcangiu ML, Tan LK, Chambers JT (1997) Stage IA uterine serous carcinoma: a study of 13 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 21:1507–1514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Castrillon DH, Lee KR, Nucci MR (2002) Distinction between endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinoma: an immunohistochemical study. Int J Gynecol Pathol 21:4–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Catasus L et al (2004) Molecular genetic alterations in endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary: similar frequency of beta-catenin abnormalities but lower rate of microsatellite instability and PTEN alterations than in uterine endometrioid carcinomas. Hum Pathol 35:1360–1368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chakravarty D et al (2007) Estrogen receptor beta1 and the beta2/betacx isoforms in nonneoplastic endometrium and in endometrioid carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 17:905–913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chambers JT et al (1990) Immunohistochemical evaluation of estrogen and progesterone receptor content in 183 patients with endometrial carcinoma. Part II: Correlation between biochemical and immunohistochemical methods and survival. Am J Clin Pathol 94:255–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chan JK, Kapp DS (2007) Role of complete lymphadenectomy in endometrioid uterine cancer. Lancet Oncol 8:831–841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chan JK et al (2007) The impact of the absolute number and ratio of positive lymph nodes on survival of endometrioid uterine cancer patients. Br J Cancer 97:605–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chan WK et al (1995) Nuclear and cytoplasmic bcl-2 expression in endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma. J Pathol 177:241–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Chen JL, Trost DC, Wilkinson EJ (1985) Endometrial papillary adenocarcinomas: two clinicopathological types. Int J Gynecol Pathol 4:279–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Chen KT, Kostich ND, Rosai J (1978) Peritoneal foreign body granulomas to keratin in uterine adenocanthoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 102:174–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chi DS et al (2008) The incidence of pelvic lymph node metastasis by FIGO staging for patients with adequately surgically staged endometrial adenocarcinoma of endometrioid histology. Int J Gynecol Cancer 18:269–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chieng DC, Ross JS, Ambros RA (1996) bcl-2 expression and the development of endometrial carcinoma. Mod Pathol 9:402–406Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Chiesa-Vottero AG et al (2007) Immunohistochemical overexpression of p16 and p53 in uterine serous carcinoma and ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 26:328–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Christopherson WM, Alberhasky RC, Connelly PJ (1982) Carcinoma of the endometrium: I. A clinicopathologic study of clear-cell carcinoma and secretory carcinoma. Cancer 49:1511–1523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Christopherson WM, Alberhasky RC, Connelly PJ (1982) Carcinoma of the endometrium. II. Papillary adenocarcinoma: a clinical pathological study, 46 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 77:534–540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Christopherson WM, Alberhasky RC, Connelly PJ (1982) Glassy cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Hum Pathol 13:418–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Christopherson WM, Connelly PJ, Alberhasky RC (1983) Carcinoma of the endometrium. V. An analysis of prognosticators in patients with favorable subtypes and Stage I disease. Cancer 51:1705–1709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Chuang JT, Van Velden DJ, Graham JB (1970) Carcinosarcoma and mixed mesodermal tumor of the uterine corpus. Review of 49 cases. Obstet Gynecol 35:769–780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Cimbaluk D et al (2007) Uterine carcinosarcoma: immunohistochemical studies on tissue microarrays with focus on potential therapeutic targets. Gynecol Oncol 105:138–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Cirisano FD Jr et al (1999) Epidemiologic and surgicopathologic findings of papillary serous and clear cell endometrial cancers when compared to endometrioid carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 74:385–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Cirisano FD Jr et al (2000) The outcome of stage I-II clinically and surgically staged papillary serous and clear cell endometrial cancers when compared with endometrioid carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 77:55–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Clement PB, Scully RE (1990) Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus: a clinicopathologic analysis of 100 cases with a review of the literature. Hum Pathol 21:363–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Connell PP et al (1999) Race and clinical outcome in endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 94:713–720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Connelly PJ, Alberhasky RC, Christopherson WM (1982) Carcinoma of the endometrium. III. Analysis of 865 cases of adenocarcinoma and adenoacanthoma. Obstet Gynecol 59:569–575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Connor EE et al (2007) Regulation of gene expression in the bovine mammary gland by ovarian steroids. J Dairy Sci 90(Suppl 1):E55–E65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Cook LS et al (1995) Population-based study of tamoxifen therapy and subsequent ovarian, endometrial, and breast cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 87:1359–1364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Coppola D et al (1998) Prognostic significance of p53, bcl-2, vimentin, and S100 protein-positive Langerhans cells in endometrial carcinoma. Hum Pathol 29:455–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Cork DM, Lennard TW, Tyson-Capper AJ (2008) Alternative splicing and the progesterone receptor in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res 10:207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Creasman WT (1989) Announcement. FIGO stages: 1988 revision. Gynecol Oncol 35:125–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Creasman WT (1997) Endometrial cancer: incidence, prognostic factors, diagnosis, and treatment. Semin Oncol 24:S1-140–S1-150Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Creasman WT et al (1999) Significance of true surgical pathologic staging: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 181:31–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Creasman WT et al (1981) Prognostic significance of peritoneal cytology in patients with endometrial cancer and preliminary data concerning therapy with intraperitoneal radiopharmaceuticals. Am J Obstet Gynecol 141:921–929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Creasman WT et al (1986) Estrogen replacement therapy in the patient treated for endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 67:326–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Creasman WT et al (1987) Surgical pathologic spread patterns of endometrial cancer. A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Cancer 60:2035–2041PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Creasman WT et al (2003) Carcinoma of the corpus uteri. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 83(Suppl 1):79–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Crissman JD et al (1981) Endometrial carcinoma in women 40 years of age or younger. Obstet Gynecol 57:699–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Curtis RE et al (2004) Risk of malignant mixed mullerian tumors after tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 96:70–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Czernobilsky B et al (1980) Endocervical-type epithelium in endometrial carcinoma: a report of 10 cases with emphasis on histochemical methods for differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol 4:481–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Daniel AG, Peters WA 3rd (1988) Accuracy of office and operating room curettage in the grading of endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 71:612–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Darvishian F et al (2004) Serous endometrial cancers that mimic endometrioid adenocarcinomas: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of a group of problematic cases. Am J Surg Pathol 28:1568–1578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    de Leeuw WJ et al (2000) Prediction of a mismatch repair gene defect by microsatellite instability and immunohistochemical analysis in endometrial tumours from HNPCC patients. J Pathol 192:328–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Deligdisch L, Holinka CF (1986) Progesterone receptors in two groups of endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 57:1385–1388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Demczuk S et al (2003) The comparison of the agreement in determining the histological grade of uterine endometrial endometrioid carcinoma, using the three-grade FIGO classification and the two-grade system. Pol J Pathol 54:179–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Demopoulos RI et al (1996) Papillary carcinoma of the endometrium: morphometric predictors of survival. Int J Gynecol Pathol 15:110–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Dockerty MB, Lovelady SB, Foust GT Jr (1951) Carcinoma of the corpus uteri in young women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 61:966–981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Doering DL et al (1989) Intraoperative evaluation of depth of myometrial invasion in stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 74:930–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Duggan BD et al (1994) Microsatellite instability in sporadic endometrial carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 86:1216–1221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Dunton CJ et al (1991) Uterine papillary serous carcinoma: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 46:97–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Egan JA et al (2004) Differential expression of WT1 and p53 in serous and endometrioid carcinomas of the endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol 23:119–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Ehrlich CE et al (1988) Steroid receptors and clinical outcome in patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 158:796–807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Eifel P et al (1982) Simultaneous presentation of carcinoma involving the ovary and the uterine corpus. Cancer 50:163–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Eifel PJ et al (1983) Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Analysis of 256 cases with disease limited to the uterine corpus: treatment comparisons. Cancer 52:1026–1031PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Enomoto T et al (1993) Alterations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene and its association with activation of the c-K-ras-2 protooncogene in premalignant and malignant lesions of the human uterine endometrium. Cancer Res 53:1883–1888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Enriori CL, Reforzo-Membrives J (1984) Peripheral aromatization as a risk factor for breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women: a review. Gynecol Oncol 17:1–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Eshleman JR, Markowitz SD (1995) Microsatellite instability in inherited and sporadic neoplasms. Curr Opin Oncol 7:83–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Esteller M et al (1999) MLH1 promoter hypermethylation is an early event in human endometrial tumorigenesis. Am J Pathol 155:1767–1772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Esteller M et al (1997) The clinicopathological significance of K-RAS point mutation and gene amplification in endometrial cancer. Eur J Cancer 33:1572–1577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Esteller M et al (1998) MLH1 promoter hypermethylation is associated with the microsatellite instability phenotype in sporadic endometrial carcinomas. Oncogene 17:2413–2417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Fader AN et al (2009) Platinum/taxane-based chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy favorably impacts survival outcomes in stage I uterine papillary serous carcinoma. Cancer 115:2119–2127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Fanning J et al (1991) Prognostic significance of the extent of cervical involvement by endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 40:46–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Farhi DC, Nosanchuk J, Silverberg SG (1986) Endometrial adenocarcinoma in women under 25 years of age. Obstet Gynecol 68:741–745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Farley JH et al (2000) Age-specific survival of women with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus. Gynecol Oncol 79:86–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Ferguson SE et al (2007) Clinicopathologic features of rhabdomyosarcoma of gynecologic origin in adults. Am J Surg Pathol 31:382–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Ferguson SE et al (2006) Comparison of uterine malignancies that develop during and following tamoxifen therapy. Gynecol Oncol 101:322–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Ferguson SE et al (2007) Prognostic features of surgical stage I uterine carcinosarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol 31:1653–1661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Fersis N et al (2004) Sentinel node identification and intraoperative lymphatic mapping. First results of a pilot study in patients with endometrial cancer. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 25:339–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Fisher B et al (1994) Endometrial cancer in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients: findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-14. J Natl Cancer Inst 86:527–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Fisher B et al (1998) Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 90:1371–1388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Fleming WP et al (1984) Autopsy findings in patients with uterine sarcoma. Gynecol Oncol 19:168–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Fornander T et al (1989) Adjuvant tamoxifen in early breast cancer: occurrence of new primary cancers. Lancet 1:117–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Franks AL, Kendrick JS, Tyler CW Jr (1987) Postmenopausal smoking, estrogen replacement therapy, and the risk of endometrial cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156:20–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Fujii H et al (2000) Frequent genetic heterogeneity in the clonal evolution of gynecological carcinosarcoma and its influence on phenotypic diversity. Cancer Res 60:114–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Fukuchi T et al (1998) Beta-catenin mutation in carcinoma of the uterine endometrium. Cancer Res 58:3526–3528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Fukuda K et al (1998) Prognostic significance of progesterone receptor immunohistochemistry in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 69:220–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Fuqua SA, Cui Y (2004) Estrogen and progesterone receptor isoforms: clinical significance in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 87(Suppl 1):S3–S10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Gagne E et al (1989) Morphologic prognostic factors of malignant mixed mullerian tumor of the uterus: a clinicopathologic study of 58 cases. Mod Pathol 2:433–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Gal D, Recio FO, Zamurovic D (1992) The new International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics surgical staging and survival rates in early endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 69:200–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Gal D et al (1991) Lymphvascular space involvement – a prognostic indicator in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 42:142–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Gambrell RD Jr, Bagnell CA, Greenblatt RB (1983) Role of estrogens and progesterone in the etiology and prevention of endometrial cancer: review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 146:696–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Garg K et al (2009) Selection of endometrial carcinomas for DNA mismatch repair protein immunohistochemistry using patient age and tumor morphology enhances detection of mismatch repair abnormalities. Am J Surg Pathol 33:925–933PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Garzetti GG et al (1996) Proliferating cell nuclear antigen in endometrial carcinoma: pretreatment identification of high-risk patients. Gynecol Oncol 61:16–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Gasparini GS, Fea RP (1992) Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in 232 patients with clinical stage I endometrial carcinoma using the new FIGO surgical staging system. Int J Oncol 1:665–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Gates EJ et al (2006) Body mass index as a prognostic factor in endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. J Natl Med Assoc 98:1814–1822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Geisinger KR et al (1986) Endometrial adenocarcinoma. A multiparameter clinicopathologic analysis including the DNA profile and the sex steroid hormone receptors. Cancer 58:1518–1525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Geisinger KR et al (1986) Correlation of female sex steroid hormone receptors with histologic and ultrastructural differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Cancer 58:1506–1517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Geisler JP et al (1998) Lack of bcl-2 persistence: an independent prognostic indicator of poor prognosis in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 71:305–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Geisler JP et al (1996) p53 as a prognostic indicator in endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 61:245–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    George E et al (1995) Malignant mixed mullerian tumor versus high-grade endometrial carcinoma and aggressive variants of endometrial carcinoma: a comparative analysis of survival. Int J Gynecol Pathol 14:39–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Giangrande PH, McDonnell DP (1999) The A and B isoforms of the human progesterone receptor: two functionally different transcription factors encoded by a single gene. Recent Prog Horm Res 54:291–313; discussion 313–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Gitsch G et al (1995) Uterine papillary serous carcinoma. A clinical study. Cancer 75:2239–2243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Gitsch G et al (1995) Endometrial cancer in premenopausal women 45 years and younger. Obstet Gynecol 85:504–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Goldstein NS, Uzieblo A (2002) WT1 immunoreactivity in uterine papillary serous carcinomas is different from ovarian serous carcinomas. Am J Clin Pathol 117:541–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Gompel A et al (1994) Bcl-2 expression in normal endometrium during the menstrual cycle. Am J Pathol 144:1195–1202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Goodman A et al (1996) Squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a report of eight cases and a review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol 61:54–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Gray LA Sr, Christopherson WM, Hoover RN (1977) Estrogens and endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol Surv 32:619–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Greenblatt RB, Gambrell RD Jr, Stoddard LD (1982) The protective role of progesterone in the prevention of endometrial cancer. Pathol Res Pract 174:297–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Greenwald P, Caputo TA, Wolfgang PE (1977) Endometrial cancer after menopausal use of estrogens. Obstet Gynecol 50:239–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Greven KM et al (1993) Pathologic stage III endometrial carcinoma. Prognostic factors and patterns of recurrence. Cancer 71:3697–3702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Grimshaw RN et al (1990) Prognostic value of peritoneal cytology in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 36:97–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Gronroos M et al (1993) Mass screening for endometrial cancer directed in risk groups of patients with diabetes and patients with hypertension. Cancer 71:1279–1282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Gu M et al (2000) Peritoneal washings in endometrial carcinoma. A study of 298 patients with histopathologic correlation. Acta Cytol 44:783–789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Guidi AJ et al (1996) Expression of vascular permeability factor (vascular endothelial growth factor) and its receptors in endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 78:454–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Hagiwara T, Mori T, Kaku T (2005) Development of endometrial cancer following radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 26:191–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Hall JB, Young RH, Nelson JH Jr (1984) The prognostic significance of adenomyosis in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 17:32–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Hamel NW et al (1996) Prognostic value of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 62:192–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Hampel H et al (2006) Screening for Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) among endometrial cancer patients. Cancer Res 66:7810–7817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Hanson MB et al (1985) The prognostic significance of lymph-vascular space invasion in stage I endometrial cancer. Cancer 55:1753–1757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Harouny VR et al (1988) The importance of peritoneal cytology in endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 72:394–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Hayes MP, Douglas W, Ellenson LH (2009) Molecular alterations of EGFR and PIK3CA in uterine serous carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 113:370–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Hayes MP et al (2006) PIK3CA and PTEN mutations in uterine endometrioid carcinoma and complex atypical hyperplasia. Clin Cancer Res 12:5932–5935PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Heatley MK (1997) A high apoptotic index occurs in subtypes of endometrial adenocarcinoma associated with a poor prognosis. Pathology 29:272–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Heatley MK (1995) Association between the apoptotic index and established prognostic parameters in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Histopathology 27:469–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Henderson GS et al (1996) bcl-2 is down-regulated in atypical endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma. Mod Pathol 9:430–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Hendrickson M et al (1982) Uterine papillary serous carcinoma: a highly malignant form of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 6:93–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Hendrickson MR, Kempson RL (1983) Ciliated carcinoma – a variant of endometrial adenocarcinoma: a report of 10 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2:1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Hernandez E, Woodruff JD (1980) Endometrial adenocarcinoma arising in adenomyosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 138:827–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Hetzel DJ et al (1992) HER-2/neu expression: a major prognostic factor in endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 47:179–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Hicks ML et al (1998) The National Cancer Data Base report on endometrial carcinoma in African-American women. Cancer 83:2629–2637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Hoffman MS et al (1989) Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium and endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary associated with pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol 32:82–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Homesley HD, Zaino R (1994) Endometrial cancer: prognostic factors. Semin Oncol 21:71–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Hopp TA et al (2004) Breast cancer patients with progesterone receptor PR-A-rich tumors have poorer disease-free survival rates. Clin Cancer Res 10:2751–2760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Hornback NB, Omura G, Major FJ (1986) Observations on the use of adjuvant radiation therapy in patients with stage I and II uterine sarcoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 12:2127–2130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Horwitz RI et al (1981) Necropsy diagnosis of endometrial cancer and detection-bias in case/control studies. Lancet 2:66–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Hoshida Y et al (1996) Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium associated with alpha-fetoprotein production. Int J Gynecol Pathol 15:266–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Ingle JN (1994) Tamoxifen and endometrial cancer: new challenges for an “old” drug. Gynecol Oncol 55:161–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Inoue Y et al (1996) The prognostic significance of vascular invasion by endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 78:1447–1451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Inthasorn P et al (2002) Analysis of clinicopathologic factors in malignant mixed Mullerian tumors of the uterine corpus. Int J Gynecol Cancer 12:348–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Ioffe OB, Papadimitriou JC, Drachenberg CB (1998) Correlation of proliferation indices, apoptosis, and related oncogene expression (bcl-2 and c-erbB-2) and p53 in proliferative, hyperplastic, and malignant endometrium. Hum Pathol 29:1150–1159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Ismail SM (1996) The effects of tamoxifen on the uterus. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 8:27–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Ito K et al (1997) Correlations between p21 expression and clinicopathological findings, p53 gene and protein alterations, and survival in patients with endometrial carcinoma. J Pathol 183:318–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Ito K et al (1996) K-ras point mutations in endometrial carcinoma: effect on outcome is dependent on age of patient. Gynecol Oncol 63:238–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Ito K et al (1994) Prognostic significance of p53 overexpression in endometrial cancer. Cancer Res 54:4667–4670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Iversen OE (1986) Flow cytometric deoxyribonucleic acid index: a prognostic factor in endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 155:770–776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Jacobsen BM et al (2005) Progesterone-independent effects of human progesterone receptors (PRs) in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer: PR isoform-specific gene regulation and tumor biology. Mol Endocrinol 19:574–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Jacques SM, Lawrence WD (1990) Endometrial adenocarcinoma with variable-level myometrial involvement limited to adenomyosis: a clinicopathologic study of 23 cases. Gynecol Oncol 37:401–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Jones MA, Young RH, Scully RE (1991) Endometrial adenocarcinoma with a component of giant cell carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 10:260–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Jones MW et al (1997) Prognostic value of p53 and K-ras-2 topographic genotyping in endometrial carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and molecular comparison. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16:354–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Jordan LB, Al-Nafussi A (2002) Clinicopathological study of the pattern and significance of cervical involvement in cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 12:42–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Jordan VC, Morrow M (1994) Should clinicians be concerned about the carcinogenic potential of tamoxifen? Eur J Cancer 30A:1714–1721PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Joseph MG, Fellows FG, Hearn SA (1990) Primary endodermal sinus tumor of the endometrium. A clinicopathologic, immunocytochemical, and ultrastructural study. Cancer 65:297–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Kadar N, Homesley HD, Malfetano JH (1992) Positive peritoneal cytology is an adverse factor in endometrial carcinoma only if there is other evidence of extrauterine disease. Gynecol Oncol 46:145–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Kadar N, Malfetano JH, Homesley HD (1993) Steroid receptor concentrations in endometrial carcinoma: effect on survival in surgically staged patients. Gynecol Oncol 50:281–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Kaku T et al (1997) Angiogenesis in endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 80:741–747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Kaku T et al (1993) Association of endometrial epithelial metaplasias with endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia in Japanese and American women. Int J Gynecol Pathol 12:297–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Kaleli S et al (1997) A strong prognostic variable in endometrial carcinoma: flow cytometric S-phase fraction. Cancer 79:944–951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Kalir T et al (1995) Endometrial adenocarcinoma with choriocarcinomatous differentiation in an elderly virginal woman. Int J Gynecol Pathol 14:266–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Kallakury BV et al (1998) Cell proliferation-associated proteins in endometrial carcinomas, including papillary serous and endometrioid subtypes. Int J Gynecol Pathol 17:320–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Kanbour-Shakir A, Tobon H (1991) Primary clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 10:67–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Kapucuoglu N et al (2008) Reproducibility of grading systems for endometrial endometrioid carcinoma and their relation with pathologic prognostic parameters. Int J Gynecol Cancer 18:790–796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Katase K et al (1998) The incidence of subsequent endometrial carcinoma with tamoxifen use in patients with primary breast carcinoma. Cancer 82:1698–1703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Kaufman DW et al (1980) Decreased risk of endometrial cancer among oral-contraceptive users. N Engl J Med 303:1045–1047PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Kelly MG et al (2004) Patients with uterine papillary serous cancers may benefit from adjuvant platinum-based chemoradiation. Gynecol Oncol 95:469–473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Kelly MG et al (2005) Improved survival in surgical stage I patients with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) treated with adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. Gynecol Oncol 98:353–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Kennedy AW et al (1987) Experience with pelvic washings in stage I and II endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 28:50–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Khalifa MA et al (1994) Expression of EGFR, HER-2/neu, P53, and PCNA in endometrioid, serous papillary, and clear cell endometrial adenocarcinomas. Gynecol Oncol 53:84–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Khuu HM et al (2000) Carcinosarcoma of the uterus associated with a nongestational choriocarcinoma. South Med J 93:226–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Kihana T et al (1995) Mutation and allelic loss of the p53 gene in endometrial carcinoma. Incidence and outcome in 92 surgical patients. Cancer 76:72–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Kim KR, Scully RE (1990) Peritoneal keratin granulomas with carcinomas of endometrium and ovary and atypical polypoid adenomyoma of endometrium. A clinicopathological analysis of 22 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 14:925–932PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Klemi PJ, Alanen KA, Salmi T (1995) Detection of malignancy in endometrium by brush sampling in 1042 symptomatic patients. Int J Gynecol Cancer 5:222–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Kobayashi K et al (1999) Mutations of the beta-catenin gene in endometrial carcinomas. Jpn J Cancer Res 90:55–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Kohlberger P et al (1996) p53 protein overexpression in early stage endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 62:213–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Kohler MF et al (1996) p53 overexpression in advanced-stage endometrial adenocarcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 175:1246–1252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Kommoss F et al (1998) Steroid receptor expression in endometria from women treated with tamoxifen. Gynecol Oncol 70:188–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Kosary CL (1994) FIGO stage, histology, histologic grade, age and race as prognostic factors in determining survival for cancers of the female gynecological system: an analysis of 1973–87 SEER cases of cancers of the endometrium, cervix, ovary, vulva, and vagina. Semin Surg Oncol 10:31–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Koshiyama M et al (1993) Immunohistochemical analysis of p53 protein over-expression in endometrial carcinomas: inverse correlation with sex steroid receptor status. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 423:265–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Koss LG et al (1984) Detection of endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia in asymptomatic women. Obstet Gynecol 64:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Kovalev S et al (1998) Loss of p53 function in uterine papillary serous carcinoma. Hum Pathol 29:613–619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Kumar NB, Hart WR (1982) Metastases to the uterine corpus from extragenital cancers. A clinicopathologic study of 63 cases. Cancer 50:2163–2169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Kurman RJ, Scully RE (1976) Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: an analysis of 21 cases. Cancer 37:872–882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Lacey JV Jr et al (2008) PTEN expression in endometrial biopsies as a marker of progression to endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Res 68:6014–6020PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Larson B et al (1990) Mixed mullerian tumours of the uterus–prognostic factors: a clinical and histopathologic study of 147 cases. Radiother Oncol 17:123–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Larson DM et al (1995) Comparison of D&C and office endometrial biopsy in predicting final histopathologic grade in endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 86:38–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Lauchlan SC (1981) Tubal (serous) carcinoma of the endometrium. Arch Pathol Lab Med 105:615–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Lax SF et al (2000) The frequency of p53, K-ras mutations, and microsatellite instability differs in uterine endometrioid and serous carcinoma: evidence of distinct molecular genetic pathways. Cancer 88:814–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Lax SF et al (2000) A binary architectural grading system for uterine endometrial endometrioid carcinoma has superior reproducibility compared with FIGO grading and identifies subsets of advance-stage tumors with favorable and unfavorable prognosis. Am J Surg Pathol 24:1201–1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Lax SF et al (1998) Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium is characterized by a distinctive profile of p53, Ki-67, estrogen, and progesterone receptor expression. Hum Pathol 29:551–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Lax SF et al (1998) Comparison of estrogen and progesterone receptor, Ki-67, and p53 immunoreactivity in uterine endometrioid carcinoma and endometrioid carcinoma with squamous, mucinous, secretory, and ciliated cell differentiation. Hum Pathol 29:924–931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Lee KR, Belinson JL (1991) Recurrence in noninvasive endometrial carcinoma. Relationship to uterine papillary serous carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 15:965–973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Lee KR, Scully RE (1989) Complex endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma in adolescents and young women 15 to 20 years of age. A report of 10 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 8:201–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Lee KR, Vacek PM, Belinson JL (1994) Traditional and nontraditional histopathologic predictors of recurrence in uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 54:10–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Lee RB, Burke TW, Park RC (1990) Estrogen replacement therapy following treatment for stage I endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 36:189–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Leiserowitz GS et al (1993) The proto-oncogene c-fms is overexpressed in endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 49:190–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Lesko SM et al (1985) Cigarette smoking and the risk of endometrial cancer. N Engl J Med 313:593–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Levenback C et al (1992) Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) treated with cisplatin, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (PAC). Gynecol Oncol 46:317–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Levi F et al (1993) Dietary factors and the risk of endometrial cancer. Cancer 71:3575–3581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Levine RL et al (1998) PTEN mutations and microsatellite instability in complex atypical hyperplasia, a precursor lesion to uterine endometrioid carcinoma. Cancer Res 58:3254–3258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Li J et al (1997) PTEN, a putative protein tyrosine phosphatase gene mutated in human brain, breast, and prostate cancer. Science 275:1943–1947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Lininger RA et al (1997) Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium and endometrial carcinoma with transitional cell differentiation. Cancer 79:1933–1943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Livasy CA et al (2006) EGFR expression and HER2/neu overexpression/amplification in endometrial carcinosarcoma. Gynecol Oncol 100:101–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Longacre TA, Hendrickson MR (1999) Diffusely infiltrative endometrial adenocarcinoma: an adenoma malignum pattern of myoinvasion. Am J Surg Pathol 23:69–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Lukes AS et al (1994) Multivariable analysis of DNA ploidy, p53, and HER-2/neu as prognostic factors in endometrial cancer. Cancer 73:2380–2385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Macasaet MA et al (1985) Prognostic factors in malignant mesodermal (mullerian) mixed tumors of the uterus. Gynecol Oncol 20:32–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Mack TM et al (1976) Estrogens and endometrial cancer in a retirement community. N Engl J Med 294:1262–1267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    MacMahon B (1997) Overview of studies on endometrial cancer and other types of cancer in humans: perspectives of an epidemiologist. Semin Oncol 24:S1-122–S1-139Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    Magriples U et al (1993) High-grade endometrial carcinoma in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 11:485–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Mai KT et al (2002) Endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium with an invasive component of minimal deviation carcinoma. Hum Pathol 33:856–858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Major FJ et al (1993) Prognostic factors in early-stage uterine sarcoma. A Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Cancer 71:1702–1709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Malpica A et al (1995) Low-stage clear-cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Surg Pathol 19:769–774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Maxwell GL et al (1998) Mutation of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene in endometrial hyperplasias. Cancer Res 58:2500–2503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    McCarty KS Jr et al (1979) Correlation of estrogen and progesterone receptors with histologic differentiation in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Am J Pathol 96:171–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    McCluggage WG (2002) Malignant biphasic uterine tumours: carcinosarcomas or metaplastic carcinomas? J Clin Pathol 55:321–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    McCluggage WG, Jenkins D (2003) p16 immunoreactivity may assist in the distinction between endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 22:231–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    McCluggage WG et al (2002) A panel of immunohistochemical stains, including carcinoembryonic antigen, vimentin, and estrogen receptor, aids the distinction between primary endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinomas. Int J Gynecol Pathol 21:11–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    McDonald TW et al (1977) Exogenous estrogen and endometrial carcinoma: case-control and incidence study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 127:572–580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    McKenney JK, Kong CS, Longacre TA (2005) Endometrial adenocarcinoma associated with subtle lymph-vascular space invasion and lymph node metastasis: a histologic pattern mimicking intravascular and sinusoidal histiocytes. Int J Gynecol Pathol 24:73–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Meis JM, Lawrence WD (1990) The immunohistochemical profile of malignant mixed mullerian tumor. Overlap with endometrial adenocarcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 94:1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Melhem MF, Tobon H (1987) Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: a clinico-pathological review of 18 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 6:347–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Milosevic MF, Dembo AJ, Thomas GM (1992) The clinical significance of malignant peritoneal cytology in stage I endometrial carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2:225–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Missaoui N et al (2006) p16INK4A overexpression and HPV infection in uterine cervix adenocarcinoma. Virchows Arch 448:597–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Mitchell H, Giles G, Medley G (1993) Accuracy and survival benefit of cytological prediction of endometrial carcinoma on routine cervical smears. Int J Gynecol Pathol 12:34–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Mittal KR, Barwick KW (1993) Endometrial adenocarcinoma involving adenomyosis without true myometrial invasion is characterized by frequent preceding estrogen therapy, low histologic grades, and excellent prognosis. Gynecol Oncol 49:197–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Modica I et al (2007) Utility of immunohistochemistry in predicting microsatellite instability in endometrial carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 31:744–751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Moll UM et al (1996) Uterine papillary serous carcinoma evolves via a p53-driven pathway. Hum Pathol 27:1295–1300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Mooney EE et al (1997) Signet-ring cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a primary tumor masquerading as a metastasis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16:169–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Morgan KG, Wilkinson N, Buckley CH (1996) Angiogenesis in normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic endometrium. J Pathol 179:317–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Morris PC et al (1995) Steroid hormone receptor content and lymph node status in endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 56:406–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Morrow CP et al (1991) Relationship between surgical-pathological risk factors and outcome in clinical stage I and II carcinoma of the endometrium: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 40:55–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Murray SK, Clement PB, Young RH (2005) Endometrioid carcinomas of the uterine corpus with sex cord-like formations, hyalinization, and other unusual morphologic features: a report of 31 cases of a neoplasm that may be confused with carcinosarcoma and other uterine neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol 29:157–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Murray SK, Young RH, Scully RE (2003) Unusual epithelial and stromal changes in myoinvasive endometrioid adenocarcinoma: a study of their frequency, associated diagnostic problems, and prognostic significance. Int J Gynecol Pathol 22:324–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Mutter GL et al (1996) Allelotype mapping of unstable microsatellites establishes direct lineage continuity between endometrial precancers and cancer. Cancer Res 56:4483–4486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Nascimento AF et al (2003) The role of CD10 staining in distinguishing invasive endometrial adenocarcinoma from adenocarcinoma involving adenomyosis. Mod Pathol 16:22–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Nazeer T et al (1995) Multivariate survival analysis of clinicopathologic features in surgical stage I endometrioid carcinoma including analysis of HER-2/neu expression. Am J Obstet Gynecol 173:1829–1834PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Nelen MR et al (1999) Novel PTEN mutations in patients with Cowden disease: absence of clear genotype-phenotype correlations. Eur J Hum Genet 7:267–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Ng AB et al (1973) Mixed adenosquamous carcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Clin Pathol 59:765–781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Nielsen AL, Nyholm HC (1994) p53 protein and c-erbB-2 protein (p185) expression in endometrial adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type. An immunohistochemical examination on paraffin sections. Am J Clin Pathol 102:76–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Nielsen AL, Nyholm HC (1996) The combination of p53 and age predict cancer specific death in advanced stage (FIGO Ic-IV) of endometrial carcinoma of endometrioid type. An immunohistochemical examination of growth fraction: Ki-67, MIB-1 and PC10; suppressor oncogene protein: p53; oncogene protein: p185 and age, hormone treatment, stage, and histologic grade. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 70:79–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Nielsen AL, Nyholm HC, Engel P (1994) Expression of MIB-1 (paraffin ki-67) and AgNOR morphology in endometrial adenocarcinomas of endometrioid type. Int J Gynecol Pathol 13:37–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Nielsen AL, Thomsen HK, Nyholm HC (1991) Evaluation of the reproducibility of the revised 1988 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grading system of endometrial cancers with special emphasis on nuclear grading. Cancer 68:2303–2309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Nielsen SN et al (1989) Clinicopathologic analysis of uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumors. Gynecol Oncol 34:372–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Niemann TH et al (1996) bcl-2 expression in endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 63:318–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Nofech-Mozes S et al (2008) Lymphovascular invasion is a significant predictor for distant recurrence in patients with early-stage endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 129:912–917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Nordal RR et al (1997) An evaluation of prognostic factors in uterine carcinosarcoma. Gynecol Oncol 67:316–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Nordstrom B et al (1996) Carcinoma of the endometrium: do the nuclear grade and DNA ploidy provide more prognostic information than do the FIGO and WHO classifications? Int J Gynecol Pathol 15:191–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Norris HJ, Roth E, Taylor HB (1966) Mesenchymal tumors of the uterus. II. A clinical and pathologic study of 31 mixed mesodermal tumors. Obstet Gynecol 28:57–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Norris HJ, Taylor HB (1966) Mesenchymal tumors of the uterus. 3. A clinical and pathologic study of 31 carcinosarcomas. Cancer 19:1459–1465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Noumoff JS et al (1991) The ability to evaluate prognostic variables on frozen section in hysterectomies performed for endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 42:202–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Nyholm HC, Christensen IJ, Nielsen AL (1995) Progesterone receptor levels independently predict survival in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 59:347–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Obata K et al (1998) Frequent PTEN/MMAC mutations in endometrioid but not serous or mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors. Cancer Res 58:2095–2097PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Obermair A et al (1999) Endometrial cancer: accuracy of the finding of a well differentiated tumor at dilatation and curettage compared to the findings at subsequent hysterectomy. Int J Gynecol Cancer 9:383–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Obermair A et al (1999) Prognostic significance of tumor angiogenesis in endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 93:367–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Oda K et al (2005) High frequency of coexistent mutations of PIK3CA and PTEN genes in endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Res 65:10669–10673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Ozuysal S et al (2003) Angiogenesis in endometrial carcinoma: correlation with survival and clinicopathologic risk factors. Gynecol Obstet Invest 55:173–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Pallares J et al (2005) Immunohistochemical analysis of PTEN in endometrial carcinoma: a tissue microarray study with a comparison of four commercial antibodies in correlation with molecular abnormalities. Mod Pathol 18:719–727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Parazzini F et al (1997) The epidemiology of female genital tract cancers. Int J Gynecol Cancer 7:169–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Parazzini F et al (1991) The epidemiology of endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 41:1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Parazzini F et al (1995) Smoking and risk of endometrial cancer: results from an Italian case-control study. Gynecol Oncol 56:195–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Park KJMPB et al (2008) Immunoprofile of adenocarcinomas of the endometrium, endocervix, and ovary with mucinous differentiation. Appl Immunohistochemistry Mol Morphol 17:8–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Peiro G et al (2002) Microsatellite instability, loss of heterozygosity, and loss of hMLH1 and hMSH2 protein expression in endometrial carcinoma. Hum Pathol 33:347–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Persson I et al (1989) Risk of endometrial cancer after treatment with oestrogens alone or in conjunction with progestogens: results of a prospective study. BMJ 298:147–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Pertschuk LP et al (1996) Estrogen receptor immunocytochemistry in endometrial carcinoma: a prognostic marker for survival. Gynecol Oncol 63:28–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Pesce C et al (1991) Endometrial carcinoma with trophoblastic differentiation. An aggressive form of uterine cancer. Cancer 68:1799–1802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Peterson EP (1968) Endometrial carcinoma in young women. A clinical profile. Obstet Gynecol 31:702–707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Pfisterer J et al (1995) Prognostic value of DNA ploidy and S-phase fraction in stage I endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 58:149–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Photopulos GJ et al (1979) Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Cancer 43:1448–1456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Pickar JH, Thorneycroft I, Whitehead M (1998) Effects of hormone replacement therapy on the endometrium and lipid parameters: a review of randomized clinical trials, 1985 to 1995. Am J Obstet Gynecol 178:1087–1099PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Pisani AL et al (1995) HER-2/neu, p53, and DNA analyses as prognosticators for survival in endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 85:729–734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Pitman MB et al (1994) Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary and endometrium, oxyphilic cell type: a report of nine cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 13:290–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Plaxe SC, Saltzstein SL (1997) Impact of ethnicity on the incidence of high-risk endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 65:8–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Podczaski E et al (1992) Detection and patterns of treatment failure in 300 consecutive cases of “early” endometrial cancer after primary surgery. Gynecol Oncol 47:323–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Podsypanina K et al (1999) Mutation of Pten/Mmac1 in mice causes neoplasia in multiple organ systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:1563–1568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Pollock PM et al (2007) Frequent activating FGFR2 mutations in endometrial carcinomas parallel germline mutations associated with craniosynostosis and skeletal dysplasia syndromes. Oncogene 26:7158–7162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Pothuri B et al (2006) Radiation-associated endometrial cancers are prognostically unfavorable tumors: a clinicopathologic comparison with 527 sporadic endometrial cancers. Gynecol Oncol 103:948–951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Potischman N et al (1996) Case-control study of endogenous steroid hormones and endometrial cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 88:1127–1135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Powell MA et al (2002) Ribosomal DNA methylation in patients with endometrial carcinoma: an independent prognostic marker. Cancer 94:2941–2952PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Prat J (2004) Prognostic parameters of endometrial carcinoma. Hum Pathol 35:649–662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Raspollini MR et al (2006) Expression and amplification of HER-2/neu oncogene in uterine carcinosarcomas: a marker for potential molecularly targeted treatment? Int J Gynecol Cancer 16:416–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Raspollini MR et al (2005) COX-2, c-KIT and HER-2/neu expression in uterine carcinosarcomas: prognostic factors or potential markers for targeted therapies? Gynecol Oncol 96:159–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Reid-Nicholson M et al (2006) Immunophenotypic diversity of endometrial adenocarcinomas: implications for differential diagnosis. Mod Pathol 19:1091–1100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Reinartz JJ et al (1994) Expression of p53, transforming growth factor alpha, epidermal growth factor receptor, and c-erbB-2 in endometrial carcinoma and correlation with survival and known predictors of survival. Hum Pathol 25:1075–1083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Ribeiro G, Swindell R (1992) The Christie Hospital adjuvant tamoxifen trial. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 11:121–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Richart RM, Ferenczy A (1974) Endometrial morphologic response to hormonal environment. Gynecol Oncol 2:180–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Rieck GC, Freites ON, Williams S (2005) Is tamoxifen associated with high-risk endometrial carcinomas? A retrospective case series of 196 women with endometrial cancer. J Obstet Gynaecol 25:39–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Risinger JI et al (1997) PTEN/MMAC1 mutations in endometrial cancers. Cancer Res 57:4736–4738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Rolitsky CD et al (1999) HER-2/neu amplification and overexpression in endometrial carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 18:138–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Ronnett BM et al (2008) Endocervical adenocarcinomas with ovarian metastases: analysis of 29 cases with emphasis on minimally invasive cervical tumors and the ability of the metastases to simulate primary ovarian neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol 32:1835–1853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Ross JC et al (1983) Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. A clinicopathologic and histochemical study. Am J Surg Pathol 7:715–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Rovirosa A et al (2002) Is vascular and lymphatic space invasion a main prognostic factor in uterine neoplasms with a sarcomatous component? A retrospective study of prognostic factors of 60 patients stratified by stages. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52:1320–1329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Rutqvist LE et al (1995) Adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for early stage breast cancer and second primary malignancies. Stockholm Breast Cancer Study Group. J Natl Cancer Inst 87:645–651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Ryden S et al (1992) Long-term effects of adjuvant tamoxifen and/or radiotherapy. The South Sweden Breast Cancer Trial. Acta Oncol 31:271–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Ryder DE (1982) Verrucous carcinoma of the endometrium – a unique neoplasm with long survival. Obstet Gynecol 59:78S–80SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Saegusa M et al (1996) Bcl-2 expression is correlated with a low apoptotic index and associated with progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in endometrial carcinomas. J Pathol 180:275–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Saegusa M, Okayasu I (1998) Progesterone therapy for endometrial carcinoma reduces cell proliferation but does not alter apoptosis. Cancer 83:111–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Saffari B et al (1995) Amplification and overexpression of HER-2/neu (c-erbB2) in endometrial cancers: correlation with overall survival. Cancer Res 55:5693–5698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Sagae S et al (2004) The reproducibility of a binary tumor grading system for uterine endometrial endometrioid carcinoma, compared with FIGO system and nuclear grading. Oncology 67:344–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Saito S et al (2006) Progesterone receptor isoforms as a prognostic marker in human endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Sci 97:1308–1314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Sakuragi N et al (2000) Prognostic significance of serous and clear cell adenocarcinoma in surgically staged endometrial carcinoma. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 79:311–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Sakuragi N et al (1998) Bcl-2 expression and prognosis of patients with endometrial carcinoma. Int J Cancer 79:153–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Salvesen HB, Iversen OE, Akslen LA (1998) Identification of high-risk patients by assessment of nuclear Ki-67 expression in a prospective study of endometrial carcinomas. Clin Cancer Res 4:2779–2785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Sartori E et al (1997) Carcinosarcoma of the uterus: a clinicopathological multicenter CTF study. Gynecol Oncol 67:70–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Savage J, Subby W, Okagaki T (1987) Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with trophoblastic differentiation and metastases as choriocarcinoma: a case report. Gynecol Oncol 26:257–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Sawada M et al (2003) Different expression patterns of KIT, EGFR, and HER-2 (c-erbB-2) oncoproteins between epithelial and mesenchymal components in uterine carcinosarcoma. Cancer Sci 94:986–991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Schlosshauer PW, Ellenson LH, Soslow RA (2002) Beta-catenin and E-cadherin expression patterns in high-grade endometrial carcinoma are associated with histological subtype. Mod Pathol 15:1032–1037PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Schlosshauer PW et al (2000) Mutational analysis of the CTNNB1 and APC genes in uterine endometrioid carcinoma. Mod Pathol 13:1066–1071PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Scholten AN et al (2004) Prognostic significance and interobserver variability of histologic grading systems for endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 100:764–772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Schwab KV et al (2009) Prospective evaluation of prognostic significance of the tumor-free distance from uterine serosa in surgically staged endometrial adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 112:146–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Scully RE, Bonfiglio TA, Kurman RJ, Silverberg SG, Wilkinson EJ (1994) Histologic typing of female genital tract tumors (international histological classification of tumors), 2nd edn. Springer, New York, pp 1–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Seidman JD, Chauhan S (2003) Evaluation of the relationship between adenosarcoma and carcinosarcoma and a hypothesis of the histogenesis of uterine sarcomas. Int J Gynecol Pathol 22:75–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Seidman JD, Kurman RJ (1999) Tamoxifen and the endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol 18:293–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Semczuk A et al (1998) K-ras gene point mutations in human endometrial carcinomas: correlation with clinicopathological features and patients’ outcome. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 124:695–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Shapiro S et al (1980) Recent and past use of conjugated estrogens in relation to adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. N Engl J Med 303:485–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Sherman ME et al (1992) Uterine serous carcinoma. A morphologically diverse neoplasm with unifying clinicopathologic features. Am J Surg Pathol 16:600–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Sherman ME, Bur ME, Kurman RJ (1995) p53 in endometrial cancer and its putative precursors: evidence for diverse pathways of tumorigenesis. Hum Pathol 26:1268–1274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Sherman ME et al (1997) Risk factors and hormone levels in patients with serous and endometrioid uterine carcinomas. Mod Pathol 10:963–968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Shia J (2008) Immunohistochemistry versus microsatellite instability testing for screening colorectal cancer patients at risk for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Part I. The utility of immunohistochemistry. J Mol Diagn 10:293–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Shia J et al (2008) Routinely assessed morphological features correlate with microsatellite instability status in endometrial cancer. Hum Pathol 39:116–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Shia J et al (2009) Immunohistochemistry as first-line screening for detecting colorectal cancer patients at risk for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome: A two antibody panel may be as predictive as a four antibody panel. Am J Surg Pathol 33(11):1639–1645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Shim JU et al (1992) Accuracy of frozen-section diagnosis at surgery in clinical stage I and II endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 166:1335–1338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    Silva EG et al (2006) Association of low-grade endometrioid carcinoma of the uterus and ovary with undifferentiated carcinoma: a new type of dedifferentiated carcinoma? Int J Gynecol Pathol 25:52–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    Silva EG, Jenkins R (1990) Serous carcinoma in endometrial polyps. Mod Pathol 3:120–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Silva EG, Tornos CS, Follen-Mitchell M (1994) Malignant neoplasms of the uterine corpus in patients treated for breast carcinoma: the effects of tamoxifen. Int J Gynecol Pathol 13:248–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. 371.
    Silverberg SG (2007) The endometrium. Arch Pathol Lab Med 131:372–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Silverberg SG et al (1990) Carcinosarcoma (malignant mixed mesodermal tumor) of the uterus. A Gynecologic Oncology Group pathologic study of 203 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 9:1–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Simpkins SB et al (1998) PTEN mutations in endometrial cancers with 10q LOH: additional evidence for the involvement of multiple tumor suppressors. Gynecol Oncol 71:391–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Sinkre P et al (2000) Endometrial endometrioid carcinomas associated with Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Int J Gynecol Pathol 19:127–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Sivridis E, Buckley CH, Fox H (1987) The prognostic significance of lymphatic vascular space invasion in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 94:991–994PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Smith DC et al (1975) Association of exogenous estrogen and endometrial carcinoma. N Engl J Med 293:1164–1167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. 377.
    Society AC (2000) 2000 cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 50:1–64Google Scholar
  378. 378.
    Sorbe B, Risberg B, Frankendal B (1990) DNA ploidy, morphometry, and nuclear grade as prognostic factors in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 38:22–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. 379.
    Soslow RA et al (2007) Clinicopathologic analysis of 187 high-grade endometrial carcinomas of different histologic subtypes: similar outcomes belie distinctive biologic differences. Am J Surg Pathol 31:979–987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    Soslow RA, Pirog E, Isacson C (2000) Endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma with associated peritoneal carcinomatosis. Am J Surg Pathol 24:726–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. 381.
    Soslow RA et al (1998) Distinctive p53 and mdm2 immunohistochemical expression profiles suggest different pathogenetic pathways in poorly differentiated endometrial carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 17:129–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. 382.
    Soslow RA et al (2000) Cyclin D1 expression in high-grade endometrial carcinomas–association with histologic subtype. Int J Gynecol Pathol 19:329–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. 383.
    Spanos WJ Jr et al (1984) Malignant mixed Mullerian tumors of the uterus. Cancer 53:311–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. 384.
    Spiegel GW (1995) Endometrial carcinoma in situ in postmenopausal women. Am J Surg Pathol 19:417–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. 385.
    Spiegel GW, Austin RM, Gelven PL (1996) Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Gynecol Oncol 60:325–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    Sreenan JJ, Hart WR (1995) Carcinosarcomas of the female genital tract. A pathologic study of 29 metastatic tumors: further evidence for the dominant role of the epithelial component and the conversion theory of histogenesis. Am J Surg Pathol 19:666–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    Srodon M, Klein WM, Kurman RJ (2003) CD10 immunostaining does not distinguish endometrial carcinoma invading myometrium from carcinoma involving adenomyosis. Am J Surg Pathol 27:786–789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Staebler A et al (2002) Hormone receptor immunohistochemistry and human papillomavirus in situ hybridization are useful for distinguishing endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol 26:998–1006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. 389.
    Stendahl U et al (1991) Prognostic significance of proliferation in endometrial adenocarcinomas: a multivariate analysis of clinical and flow cytometric variables. Int J Gynecol Pathol 10:271–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. 390.
    Stewart HJ (1992) The Scottish trial of adjuvant tamoxifen in node-negative breast cancer. Scottish Cancer Trials Breast Group. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 11:117–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. 391.
    Susini T et al (1994) Prognostic value of flow cytometric deoxyribonucleic acid index in endometrial carcinoma: comparison with other clinical-pathologic parameters. Am J Obstet Gynecol 170:527–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. 392.
    Sutton G et al (2000) A phase III trial of ifosfamide with or without cisplatin in carcinosarcoma of the uterus: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Gynecol Oncol 79:147–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. 393.
    Swerdlow AJ, Jones ME (2005) Tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer and risk of endometrial cancer: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 97:375–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. 394.
    Tambouret R, Clement PB, Young RH (2003) Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma with a deceptive pattern of spread to the uterine cervix: a manifestation of stage IIb endometrial carcinoma liable to be misinterpreted as an independent carcinoma or a benign lesion. Am J Surg Pathol 27:1080–1088PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. 395.
    Tashiro H et al (1997) Mutations in PTEN are frequent in endometrial carcinoma but rare in other common gynecological malignancies. Cancer Res 57:3935–3940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. 396.
    Tashiro H et al (1997) p53 gene mutations are common in uterine serous carcinoma and occur early in their pathogenesis. Am J Pathol 150:177–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  397. 397.
    Taskin M et al (1997) bcl-2 and p53 in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Mod Pathol 10:728–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. 398.
    Taylor NP et al (2006) Defective DNA mismatch repair and XRCC2 mutation in uterine carcinosarcomas. Gynecol Oncol 100:107–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. 399.
    Taylor NP et al (2006) DNA mismatch repair and TP53 defects are early events in uterine carcinosarcoma tumorigenesis. Mod Pathol 19:1333–1338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. 400.
    Taylor RR et al (1999) An analysis of two versus three grades for endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 74:3–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. 401.
    Tiltman AJ (1980) Mucinous carcinoma of the endometrium. Obstet Gynecol 55:244–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  402. 402.
    Tobon H, Watkins GJ (1985) Secretory adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol 4:328–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. 403.
    Tornos C et al (1992) Aggressive stage I grade 1 endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 70:790–798PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. 404.
    Trere D et al (1994) Interphase AgNOR quantity and DNA content in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 53:202–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. 405.
    Tsuda H et al (1997) Prospective study to compare endometrial cytology and transvaginal ultrasonography for identification of endometrial malignancies. Gynecol Oncol 65:383–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. 406.
    Tunc M et al (1998) Endometrium adenocarcinoma with choriocarcinomatous differentiation: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 19:489–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. 407.
    Turner DA et al (1989) The prognostic significance of peritoneal cytology for stage I endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 74:775–780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. 408.
    Ulbright TM, Roth LM (1985) Metastatic and independent cancers of the endometrium and ovary: a clinicopathologic study of 34 cases. Hum Pathol 16:28–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. 409.
    Vaidya AP et al (2006) Uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumors should not be included in studies of endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 103:684–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. 410.
    van der Putten HW et al (1989) Prognostic value of quantitative pathologic features and DNA content in individual patients with stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma. Cancer 63:1378–1387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  411. 411.
    van Leeuwen FE et al (1994) Risk of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen treatment of breast cancer. Lancet 343:448–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. 412.
    van Rijswijk RE et al (1994) The effect of chemotherapy on the different components of advanced carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed mesodermal tumors) of the female genital tract. Int J Gynecol Cancer 4:52–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. 413.
    Vang R et al (2001) Immunohistochemical analysis of clear cell carcinoma of the gynecologic tract. Int J Gynecol Pathol 20:252–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  414. 414.
    Vasen HF et al (2004) Identification of HNPCC by molecular analysis of colorectal and endometrial tumors. Dis Markers 20:207–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. 415.
    Voskuil DW et al (2007) Physical activity and endometrial cancer risk, a systematic review of current evidence. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:639–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. 416.
    Wagatsuma S et al (1998) Tumor angiogenesis, hepatocyte growth factor, and c-Met expression in endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 82:520–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. 417.
    Walker AN, Mills SE (1982) Serous papillary carcinoma of the endometrium. A clinicopathologic study of 11 cases. Diagn Gynecol Obstet 4:261–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. 418.
    Wang NPSZ et al (1995) Coordinate expression of cytokeratins 7 and 20 defines unique subsets of carcinomas. Appl Immunohistochem 3:99–107Google Scholar
  419. 419.
    Wani Y et al (2008) Aberrant Cdx2 expression in endometrial lesions with squamous differentiation: important role of Cdx2 in squamous morula formation. Hum Pathol 39:1072–1079PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  420. 420.
    Baergen RN et al (2001) Early uterine serous carcinoma: Clonal origin of extra uterine disease. Int J Gynecol Pathol 20:214–219Google Scholar
  421. 421.
    Webb GA, Lagios MD (1987) Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156:1486–1491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. 422.
    Weir HK, Sloan M, Kreiger N (1994) The relationship between cigarette smoking and the risk of endometrial neoplasms. Int J Epidemiol 23:261–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. 423.
    Wheeler DT et al (2000) Minimal uterine serous carcinoma: diagnosis and clinicopathologic correlation. Am J Surg Pathol 24:797–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  424. 424.
    Wheeler DT, Bristow RE, Kurman RJ (2007) Histologic alterations in endometrial hyperplasia and well-differentiated carcinoma treated with progestins. Am J Surg Pathol 31:988–998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. 425.
    Wheelock JB et al (1985) Uterine sarcoma: analysis of prognostic variables in 71 cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151:1016–1022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. 426.
    Witkiewicz AK, McConnell T, Potoczek M, Emmons RUB, Kurman RJ (2010) Increased natural killer cells and decreased regulatory T cells are seen in complex atypical hyperplasia and well-differentiated carcinoma treated with progestins. Hum Pathol 41:26–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. 427.
    Wolfson AH et al (2007) A gynecologic oncology group randomized phase III trial of whole abdominal irradiation (WAI) vs. cisplatin-ifosfamide and mesna (CIM) as post-surgical therapy in stage I-IV carcinosarcoma (CS) of the uterus. Gynecol Oncol 107:177–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. 428.
    Wolfson AH et al (1992) The prognostic significance of surgical staging for carcinoma of the endometrium. Gynecol Oncol 45:142–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  429. 429.
    Yamada SD et al (2000) Pathologic variables and adjuvant therapy as predictors of recurrence and survival for patients with surgically evaluated carcinosarcoma of the uterus. Cancer 88:2782–2786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  430. 430.
    Yamauchi N et al (1996) Immunohistochemical analysis of endometrial adenocarcinoma for bcl-2 and p53 in relation to expression of sex steroid receptor and proliferative activity. Int J Gynecol Pathol 15:202–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  431. 431.
    Yamazawa K et al (2000) Prognostic factors in young women with endometrial carcinoma: a report of 20 cases and review of literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer 10:212–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  432. 432.
    Yazigi R, Piver MS, Blumenson L (1983) Malignant peritoneal cytology as prognostic indicator in stage I endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 62:359–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. 433.
    Yemelyanova A et al (2009) Utility of p16 expression for distinction of uterine serous carcinomas from endometrial endometrioid and endocervical adenocarcinomas: immunohistochemical analysis of 201 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 33:1504–1514Google Scholar
  434. 434.
    Yemelyanova A et al (2009) Endocervical adenocarcinomas with prominent endometrial or endomyometrial involvement simulating primary endometrial carcinomas: utility of HPV DNA detection and immunohistochemical expression of p16 and hormone receptors to confirm the cervical origin of the corpus tumor. Am J Surg Pathol 33:914–924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. 435.
    Yokoyama Y et al (2000) Expression of PTEN and PTEN pseudogene in endometrial carcinoma. Int J Mol Med 6:47–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  436. 436.
    Young RH, Scully RE (1992) Uterine carcinomas simulating microglandular hyperplasia. A report of six cases. Am J Surg Pathol 16:1092–1097PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  437. 437.
    Zaino RJ (2009) FIGO staging of endometrial adenocarcinoma: a critical review and proposal. Int J Gynecol Pathol 28:1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  438. 438.
    Zaino RJ (1995) Pathologic indicators of prognosis in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Selected aspects emphasizing the GOG experience. Gynecologic Oncology Group. Pathol Ann 30(Pt 1):1–28Google Scholar
  439. 439.
    Zaino RJ et al (1998) DNA content is an independent prognostic indicator in endometrial adenocarcinoma. A Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Int J Gynecol Pathol 17:312–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  440. 440.
    Zaino RJ et al (1991) The significance of squamous differentiation in endometrial carcinoma. Data from a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Cancer 68:2293–2302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. 441.
    Zaino RJ, Kurman RJ (1988) Squamous differentiation in carcinoma of the endometrium: a critical appraisal of adenoacanthoma and adenosquamous carcinoma. Semin Diagn Pathol 5:154–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  442. 442.
    Zaino RJ et al (1998) Villoglandular adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: a clinicopathologic study of 61 cases: a gynecologic oncology group study. Am J Surg Pathol 22:1379–1385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. 443.
    Zaino RJ et al (1996) Pathologic models to predict outcome for women with endometrial adenocarcinoma: the importance of the distinction between surgical stage and clinical stage – a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Cancer 77:1115–1121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  444. 444.
    Zaino RJ et al (1995) The utility of the revised International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics histologic grading of endometrial adenocarcinoma using a defined nuclear grading system. A Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Cancer 75:81–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  445. 445.
    Zaloudek C et al (1997) Microglandular adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: a form of mucinous adenocarcinoma that may be confused with microglandular hyperplasia of the cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16:52–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  446. 446.
    Zelmanowicz A et al (1998) Evidence for a common etiology for endometrial carcinomas and malignant mixed mullerian tumors. Gynecol Oncol 69:253–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  447. 447.
    Zheng W et al (1996) p53 overexpression and bcl-2 persistence in endometrial carcinoma: comparison of papillary serous and endometrioid subtypes. Gynecol Oncol 61:167–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  448. 448.
    Zheng W et al (1998) p53 immunostaining as a significant adjunct diagnostic method for uterine surface carcinoma: precursor of uterine papillary serous carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 22:1463–1473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  449. 449.
    Ziel HK, Finkle WD (1975) Increased risk of endometrial carcinoma among users of conjugated estrogens. N Engl J Med 293:1167–1170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lora Hedrick Ellenson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Brigitte M. Ronnett
    • 2
  • Robert A. Soslow
    • 3
  • Richard J. Zaino
    • 4
  • Robert J. Kurman
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineWeill Cornell Medical College and New York Presbyterian HospitalNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pathology, Division of Gynecologic PathologyJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of PathologyMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of Pathology, H179M.S. Hershey Medical CenterHersheyUSA
  5. 5.Departments of Gynecology, Obstetrics, Pathology and Oncology, Division of Gynecologic PathologyJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations