Advertisement

Diseases of the Placenta

  • Deborah J. GersellEmail author
  • Frederick T. Kraus
Reference work entry

Abstract

The placenta is crucial for fetal growth and survival, performing the most important functions of many somatic organs before birth. Thus, pathologic processes interfering with placental function may result in abnormalities of fetal growth or development, malformation, or stillbirth, and there is increasing recognition that some long-term (especially neurologic) disabilities can be traced to injury occurring before birth. The purpose of this chapter is to describe clinically important placental lesions and to emphasize the context in which these lesions are directly or indirectly important to the fetus, the mother, or both.

Keywords

Intervillous Space Chorionic Plate Terminal Villus Monochorionic Twin Stem Villus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Abramowsky C, Beyer-Patterson P et al (1991) Nonsyphilitic spirochetosis in second-trimester fetuses. Pediatr Pathol 11:827–838PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams-Chapman I, Vaucher YE et al (2002) Maternal floor infarction of the placenta: association with central nervous system injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. J Perinatol 22:236–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Al-Adnani M, Kiho L et al (2008) Recurrent massive perivillous fibrin deposition associated with polymyositis: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Dev Pathol 11:226–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Altshuler G (1984) Chorangiosis. An important placental sign of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Arch Pathol Lab Med 108:71–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Altshuler G, Hyde S (1989) Meconium-induced vasocontraction: a potential cause of cerebral and other fetal hypoperfusion and of poor pregnancy outcome. J Child Neurol 4:137–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ananth CV, Oyelese Y et al (2005) Placental abruption in the United States, 1979 through 2001: temporal trends and potential determinants. Am J Obstet Gynecol 192:191–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ananth CV, Vintzileos AM et al (1998) Standards of birth weight in twin gestations stratified by placental chorionicity. Obstet Gynecol 91:917–924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arias F, Rodriguez L et al (1993) Maternal placental vasculopathy and infection: two distinct subgroups among patients with preterm labor and preterm ruptured membranes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 168:585–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arias F, Romero R et al (1998) Thrombophilia: A mechanism of disease in women with adverse pregnancy outcome and thrombotic lesions in the placenta. J Matern Fetal Med 7:277–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ariel IB, Anteby E et al (2004) Placental pathology in fetal thrombophilia. Hum Pathol 35:729–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Badawi N, Felix JF et al (2005) Cerebral palsy following term newborn encephalopathy. Devel Med Child Neurol 47:293–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baergen RN (2007) Cord abnormalities, structural lesions, and cord accidents. Semin Diag Pathol 24:23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Baergen RN, Malicki D et al (2001) Morbidity. mortality, and placental pathology in excessively long umbilical cords; retrospective study. Pediatr Devel Pathol 4:144–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baldwin VJ (1994) Pathology of multiple pregnancy. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barth WH Jr, Genest DR et al (1996) Uterine arcuate artery Doppler and decidual microvascular pathology in pregnancies complicated by type I diabetes mellitus. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 8:98–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baschat AA, Gungor S et al (2007) Nucleated red blood cell counts in the first week of life: a critical appraisal of relationships with perinatal outcome in preterm growth restricted neonates. Am J Obstet Gynecol 197(3):286.e1–286.e8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Benirschke K, Kaufmann P et al (2006) Pathology of the human placenta, 5th edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Benirschke K, Masliah E (2001) The placenta in multiple pregnancy: outstanding issues. Reprod Fertil Dev 13(7–8):615–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Berg TG, Rayburn WF (1995) Umbilical cord length and acid-base balance at delivery. J Reprod Med 40:1–12Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bieber FR, Nance WE et al (1981) Genetic studies of an acardiac monster: evidence of polar body twinning in man. Science 213:775–777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Blanc WA (1959) Amnionic infection syndrome. Pathogenesis, morphology, and significance in circumnatal mortality. Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2:705–734Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bloomfield RD, Suarez JR et al (1978) The placenta: a diagnostic tool in sickle cell disorders. J Natl Med Assoc 70:87–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Boyd JD, Hamilton WJ (1970) The human placenta. Heffer, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bruner JP, Anderson TL et al (1998) Placental pathophysiology of the twin: oligohydramnios-polyhydramnios sequence and the twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Placenta 19:81–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Burke CJ, Tannenberg AE (1995) Prenatal brain damage and placental infarction-An autopsy study. Devel Med Child Neurol 37:555–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chan OT, Mannino FL et al (2007) A retrospective analysis of placentas from twin pregnancies derived from assisted reproductive technology. Twin Res Hum Genet 10(2):385–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cleary GM, Wiswell TE (1998) Meconium-stained amnionic fluid and the meconium aspiration syndrome. An update. Pediatr Clin North Amer 45:511–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cooperstock MS, Tummara R et al (2000) Twin birth weight discordance and risk of preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 183:63–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Curtin WM, Shehata BM et al (2002) The feasibility of using histologic placental sections to predict newborn nucleated red blood cell counts. Obstet Gynecol 110:305–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dahms B, Boyd T et al (2002) Severe perinatal liver disease associated with fetal thrombotic vasculopathy in the placenta. Pediatr Devel Pathol 5:80–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Davis BH, Olsen S et al (1998) Detection of fetal red cells in fetomaternal hemorrhage using a fetal hemoglobin monoclonal antibody by flow cytometry. Transfusion 38:749–756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    De Laat MWM, van Alderen ED et al (2007) The umbilical coiling index in complicated pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 130:66–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Deans A, Jauniaux E (1998) Prenatal diagnosis and outcome of subamniotic hematomas. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 11:319–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Decastel M, Leborgne-Samuel Y (1999) Morphological features of the human umbilical vein in normal, sickle cell trait, and sickle cell disease pregnancies. Hum Pathol 30(1):13–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    DeSa DJ (1973) Intimal cushions of foetal placental veins. J Pathol 110:347–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Di Naro E, Ghezzi F et al (2001) Umbilical vein blood flow in fetuses with normal and lean umbilical cord. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 17:224–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dizon-Townson DS, Meline L et al (1997) Fetal carriers of the factor V Leiden mutation are prone to miscarriage and placental infarction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 177:402–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Doss BJ, Jacques SM et al (1998) Maternal scleroderma: placenta findings and perinatal outcome. Hum Pathol 28:1524–1530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dr G, Singer DB (1992) Estimating the time of death in stillborn fetuses: III. External fetal examination; a study of 86 stillborns. Obstet Gynecol 80:593–600Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Esplin MS (2006) Preterm birth: a review of genetic factors and future directions for genetic study. Obstet Gynecol Survey 61:800–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fernandes BJ, von Dadelszen P et al (2007) Flow cytometric assessment of feto-maternal hemorrhage; a comparison with Bettke-Kleihauer. Prenat Diagn 27:641–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fok RY, Pavlova Z et al (1990) The correlation of arterial lesions with umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry in the placentas of small-for-dates pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol 75:578–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fox H (1966) Thrombosis of the foetal stem arteries in the human placenta. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonwealth 73:961–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fox H (1997) Pathology of the placenta, 2nd edn. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fox H, Sebire NJ (2007) Pathology of the placenta, 3rd edn. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Frank HG, Malekzadeh F et al (1994) Immunohistochemistry of two different types of placental fibrinoid. Acta Anat 150:55–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fraser RB, Wright JR (2002) Eosinophilic/T-cell chorionic vasculitis. Pedatri Dev Pathol 5:350–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gardella C, Riley DE et al (2004) Identification and sequencing of bacterial rDNAs in culture-negative amniotic fluid from women in premature labor. Am J Perinatol 21:319–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gardiner JP (1922) The umbilical cord: normal length; length in cord complications; etiology and frequency of coiling. Surg Gynecol Obstet 34:252–256Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Genest DR (1992) Estimating the time of death in stillborn fetuses: II. Histologic evaluation of the placenta; a study of 71 stillborns. Obstet Gynecol 80:585–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Genest DR, Williams MA et al (1992) Estimating the time of death in stillborn fetuses: I. Histologic evaluation of fetal organs; an autopsy study of 150 stillborns. Obstet Gynecol 80:575–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ghidini A, Spong CY (2001) Severe meconium aspiration syndrome is not caused by aspiration of meconium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 185:931–938PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Giles WB, Trudinger BJ et al (1985) Fetal umbilical artery flow velocity waveforms and placental resistance: pathological correlation. Brit J Obstet Gynaecol 92:31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gomez R, Romero R et al (1998) The fetal inflammatory response syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 179:194–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Greer IA (1999) Thrombosis in pregnancy: maternal and fetal issues. Lancet 353:1258–1265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gupta N, Sebire NJ et al (2004) Massive perivillous fibrin deposition associated with discordant fetal growth in a dichorionic twin pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol 24:579–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Han YW, Redline RW et al (2004) Fusobacterium nucleatum induces premature and term stillbirths in pregnant mice: implication of oral bacteria in preterm birth. Infect Immun 72:2272–2279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hansen AR, Collins MH et al (2000) Very low birthweight infant's placenta and its relation to pregnancy and fetal characteristics. Pediatr Devel Pathol 3:419–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hansen AR, Collins MH et al (2000) Very low birthweight placenta; clustering of morphologic characteristics. Pediatr Devel Pathol 3:431–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hashimoto K, Clapp JF (2003) The effect of nuchal cord on amniotic fluid and cord blood erythropoetin at delivery. J Soc Gynecol Investig 10:406–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hecht JL, Allred EN et al (2008) Histologic characteristics of singleton placentas delivered before the 28th week of gestation. Pathology 40:372–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Heller DS, Rush D et al (2003) Subchorionic hematoma associated with thrombophilia: report of three cases. Pediatr Dev Pathol 6:261–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hermansen MC (2001) Nucleated red blood cells in the fetus and newborn. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 84:F211–F215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hershkovitz R, Silberstein T et al (2001) Risk factors associated with true knots of the umbilical cord. Eur J Obstet Gyneco Biol 93:36–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hill GB (1998) Preterm birth: associations with genital and possibly oral microflora. Ann Periodontal 3:222–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hung NA, Jackson C et al (2005) Pregnancy-related polymyositis and massive perivillous fibrin deposition in the placenta: are they pathogenetically related? Arthr Rhematism 55:154–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Huppertz B, Kadyrov M et al (2006) Apoptosis and its role in the trophoblast. Am J Obstet Gynecol 195:29–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ibdah JA, Bennett MJ et al (1999) A fetal fatty acid oxidation disorder as a cause of liver disease in pregnant women. N Engl J Med 340:1723–1731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jacques SM, Qureshi F (1998) Chronic chorioamnionitis: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study. Hum Pathol 29:1457–1461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jamshed S, Kouides P et al (2007) Pathology of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in the placenta, with emphasis on the “snowman sign.”. Pediatr Dev Pathol 10:455–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jauniaux E, Nicolaides KH et al (1997) Perinatal features associated with placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Placenta 18:701–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kalousek DK, Bamforth S (1988) Amnion rupture sequence in previable fetuses. Am J Med Genet 31:63–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kalousek DK, Barrett I (1994) Confined placental mosaicism and stillbirth. Pediatr Pathol 14:151–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kalousek DK, Fitch N et al (1990) Pathology of the human embryo and previable fetus. An atlas. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kaplan C, Blanc WA et al (1982) Identification of erythrocytes in intervillous thrombi. A study using immunoperoxidase identification of hemoglobins. Hum Pathol 13:554–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Katz VL, DiTomasso J et al (2002) Activated protein C resistance associated with maternal floor infarction treated with low-molecular-weight heparin. Am J Perinatol 19:273–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Katzman PJ, Genest DR (2002) Maternal floor infarction and massive perivillous fibrin deposition: histological definitions, association with intrauterine fetal growth restriction, and risk of recurrence. Pediatr Devel Pathol 5:159–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Keenan WJ, Steichen JJ et al (1977) Placental pathology compared with clinical outcome. Am J Dis Child 131:1224–1227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Keogh JM, Badawi N (2006) The origins of cerebral palsy. Curr Opin Neurol 19:129–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Khong TY (1999) The placenta in maternal hyperhomocysteinaemia. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 106:2733–2738Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kim CJ, Yoon BH et al (2001) Umbilical arteritis and phlebitis mark different stages of the fetal inflammatory response. Am J Obstet Gynecol 185(2):496–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    King EL, Redline RW et al (2004) Myocytes of chorionic vessels from placentas with meconium-associated vascular necrosis exhibit apoptotic markers. Hum Pathol 35(4):412–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kraus FT, Acheen VI (1999) Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy in the placenta: cerebral thrombi and infarcts, coagulopathies, and cerebral palsy. Hum Pathol 30:759–769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kraus FT, Redline RW et al (2004) Placental pathology. ARP/AFIP, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kumar D, Fung W et al (2006) Proinflammatory cytokines found in amniotic fluid induce collagen remodeling, apoptosis, and biophysical weakening of cultured human fetal membranes. Biol Report 74(1):29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lash GB, Quenby S et al (2008) Gestational diseases – a workshop report. Placenta 22:S92–S94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Leistra-Leistra MJ, Timmer A et al (2004) Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy in the placenta: a thrombophilic connection between pregnancy complications and neonatal thrombosis? Placenta 25(Suppl A):S102–S105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Leviton A, Paneth N et al (1999) Maternal infection, fetal inflammatory response, and brain damage in very low birth weight infants. Developmental Epidemiology Network Investigators. Pediatr Res 46(5):566–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lim FT, Scherjon SA et al (2000) Association of stress during delivery with increased numbers of nucleated cells and hematologic progenitor cells in umbilical cord blood. Am J Obstet Gynecol 183:1144–1151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lim LK, Zhou Y et al (1997) Human cytotrophoblast differentiation/invasion is abnormal in pre-eclampsia. Am J Pathol 151:1809–1818PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lin MG (2006) Umbilical cord prolapse. Obstet Gynecol Surv 61(4):269–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Machin GA, Ackerman J et al (2000) Abnormal umbilical cord coiling is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Pediatr Devel Pathol 3:462–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Magid MS, Kaplan C et al (1998) Placental pathology in systemic lupus erythematosus: a prospective study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 179:226–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Many A, Elad R et al (2002) Third trimester unexplained intrauterine fetal death is associated with inherited thrombophilia. Obstet Gynecol 99:684–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Many A, Schreiber L et al (2001) Pathologic features of the placenta in women with severe pregnancy complications and thrombophilia. Obstet Gynecol 98:1041–1044PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Matern D, Shehata BM et al (2001) Placental floor infarction complicating the pregnancy of a fetus with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency. Mol Genet Metab 72:265–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    McDonald DG, Kelehan P et al (2004) Placental fetal thrombotic vasculopathy is associated with neonatal encephalopathy. Hum Pathol 35:875–880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Menezo YJ, Sakkas D (2002) Monozygotic twining: is it related to apoptosis in the embryo? Hum Reprod 17:247–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Miller PW, Coen RW et al (1985) Dating the time interval from meconium passage to birth. Obstet Gynecol 66:459–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mitra SC, Seshan SV et al (2000) Placental vessel morphometry in growth retardation and increased resistance of the umbilical artery Doppler flow. J Matern Fetal Med 9:282–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Moscoso G, Jauniaux E et al (1991) Placental vascular anomaly with diffuse mesenchymal stem villous hyperplasia. A new clinico-pathological entity? Path Res Pract 187:324–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mutter WP, Karumanchi SA (2008) Molecular mechanisms of preeclampsia. Microvasc Res 75:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Myerson D, Parkin RK (2006) The pathogenesis of villitis of unknown etiology: analysis with a new conjoint immunohistochemistry-in situ hybridization procedure to identify specific maternal and fetal cells. Pediatr Dev Pathol 9(4):257–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Naeye RL (1985) Umbilical cord length: clinical significance. J Pediatr 107:278–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Naeye RL, Maisels J et al (1983) The clinical significance of placental villous edema. Pediatrics 71:588–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Naeye RL, Shaffer ML (2005) Postnatal laboratory timers of antenatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. J Perinatol 25:664–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Nelson KB, Dambrosia JM et al (1998) Neonatal cytokines and coagulation factors in children with cerebral palsy. Ann Neurol 44:665–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Nelson KB, Dambrosia JM et al (2005) Genetic polymorphisms and cerebral palsy in very preterm infants. Pediatr Res 57:494–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Nelson KB, Grether KJ (1998) Potentially asphyxiating conditions and spastic cerebral palsy in infants of normal birth weight. Am J Obstet Gynecol 179:507–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Ogino S, Redline RW (2000) Villous capillary lesions of the placenta: Distinctions between chorangioma, chorangiomatosis, and chorangiosis. Hum Pathol 31:945–954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ohyama M, Itani Y et al (2002) Re-evaluation of chorioamnionitis and funisitis with a special reference to subacute chorioamnionitis. Hum Pathol 33:183–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ordi J, Ismail MR et al (1998) Massive chronic intervillositis of the placenta associated with malaria infection. Am J Surg Pathol 22:1006–1011PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Parast MM, Crum CP et al (2008) Placental histological criteria for umbilical flow restriction in unexplained stillbirth. Hum Pathol 39:948–953PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Patel D, Dawson M et al (1989) Umbilical cord circumference at birth. Am J Dis Child 143:638–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Peng HW, Levitin-Smith M et al (2006) Umbilical cord stricture and overcoiling are common causes of fetal demise. Pediatr Dev Pathol 9:14–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Pham T, Steele J et al (2006) Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is associated with high rates of intrauterine growth restriction and fetal demise. A report of 11 new cases and review of the literature. AOLP 126:67–78Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Pharaoh P, Adi Y (2000) Consequences of in-utero death in twin pregnancy. Lancet 355:1597–1602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Phelan JP, Korst LM et al (1998) Neonatal nucleated red blood cell and lymphocyte counts in fetal brain injury. Obstet Gynecol 91:485–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Qureshi F, Jacques SM (1994) Marked segmental thinning of the umbilical cord vessels. Arch Pathol Lab Med 118:826–830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Raio L, Ghezzi F (1998) The clinical significance of antenatal detection of discordant umbilical arteries. Obstet Gynecol 91:86–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Raio L, Ghezzi F et al (1999) Prenatal diagnosis of a lean umbilical cord: A simple marker for the fetus at risk of being small for gestational age at birth. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 13:176–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Rakheja D, Bennett MJ et al (2002) Long-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency: a molecular and biochemical review. Lab Invest 82:815–824PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Rand JH (2000) Antiphospholipid antibody-mediated disruption of the annexin-V antithrombotic shield: a thrombogenic mechanism for the antiphospholipid syndrome. J Autoimmun 15:107–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Rayne SC, Kraus FT (1993) Placental thrombi and other vascular lesions. Classification, morphology, and clinical correlations. Pathol Res Pract 189:2–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Redline RW (1988) Role of local immunosuppression in murine fetoplacental listeriosis. J Clin Invest 79:1234–1241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Redline RW (1988) Specific defects in the anti-listerial immune response in discrete regions of the murine uterus and placenta account for susceptibility to infection. J Immunol 140:3947–3955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Redline RW (2002) Clinically and biologically relevant patterns of placental inflammation. Pediatr Dev Pathol 5:326–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Redline RW (2004) Clinical and pathological umbilical cord abnormalities in fetal thrombotic vasculopathy. Hum Pathol 35:1494–1498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Redline RW (2004) Placental inflammation. Seminars Neonat 9:265–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Redline RW (2005) Severe fetal placental vascular lesions in term infants with neurologic impairment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 192:452–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Redline RW (2006) Inflammatory responses in the placenta and umbilical cord. Sem Fetal and Neonat Med 11:296–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Redline RW (2006) Thrombophilia and placental pathology. Clin Obstet and Gynecol 49(4):885–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Redline RW (2006) Placental pathology and cerebral palsy. Clin Perinat 33:503–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Redline RW (2007) Infections and other inflammatory conditions. Sem Diag Pathol 24:5–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Redline RW (2007) Villitis of unknown etiology: noninfectious chronic villitis in the placenta. Hum Pathol 38(10):1439–1446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Redline RW (2008) Placental pathology: a systematic approach with clinical correlations. Placenta 29:S86–S89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Redline RW (2008) Elevated circulating fetal nucleated red blood cells and placental pathology in term infants who develop cerebral palsy. Hum Pathol 39:1378–1384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Redline RW, Ariel IB et al (2004) Fetal vascular obstructive lesions: Nosology and reproducibility of placental reaction patterns. Pediatr Devel Pathol 7:443–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Redline RW, Boyd T et al (2004) Maternal vascular underperfusion: nosology and reproducibility of placental reaction patterns. Pediatr Devel Pathol 7:237–249Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Redline RW, Dinesh S et al (2001) Placental lesions associated with abnormal growth in twins. Pediatr Dev Pathol 4:473–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Redline RW, Faye-Petersen O et al (2003) Amniotic infection syndrome: nosology and reproducibility of placental reaction patterns. Pediatr Dev Pathol 6:435–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Redline RW, Hassold T et al (1998) Determinants of villous trophoblastic hyperplasia in spontaneous abortions. Mod Pathol 11(8):762–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Redline RW, Jiang JG et al (2003) Discordancy for maternal floor infarction in dizygotic twin placentas. Hum Pathol 34:822–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Redline RW, Minich N et al (2007) Placental lesions as predictors of cerebral palsy and abnormal neurocognitive function in extremely low birth weight infants (<1kg). Pediatr Dev Pathol 10:282–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Redline RW, O' Riordan MA (2000) Placental lesions associated with cerebral palsy and neurologic impairment following term birth. Arch Pathol Lab Med 124:1785–1791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Redline RW, Pappin A (1995) Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy: the clinical significance of extensive avascular villi. Hum Pathol 26:80–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Redline R, Patterson R (1993) Villitis of unknown etiology is associated with major infiltration of fetal tissues by maternal cells. Am J Pathol 143:332–336Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Redline RW, Patterson P (1994) Patterns of placental injury: correlation with gestational age, placental weight, and clinical diagnosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 118:698–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Redline RW, Patterson P (1995) Preeclampsia is associated with an excess of proliferative immature intermediate trophoblast. Hum Pathol 26:594–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Redline RW, Wilson-Costello D et al (1998) Placental lesions associated with neurologic impairment and cerebral palsy in very low birth weight infants. Arch Pathol Lab Med 122:1091–1098PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Redline RW, Wilson-Costello D et al (1999) Chronic peripheral separation of placenta. The significance of diffuse chorioamniotic hemosiderosis. Am J Clin Pathol 111:804–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Resnik R (2002) Intrauterine growth restriction. Obstet Gynecol 99:490–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Reynolds MA, Schieve LA et al (2003) Trends in multiple births conceived using assisted reproductive technology, United States, 1997–2000. Pediatrics 111:1159–1162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Rigano S, Bozzo M et al (2001) Early and persistent reduction in umbilical vein flow in the growth restricted fetus: A longitudinal study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 185:834–838PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Rodger MA, Paidas M et al (2008) Inherited thrombophilia and pregnancy complications revisited. Obstet Gynecol 112:320–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Rodriguez MM, Chaves F et al (2002) Value of autopsy in nonimmune hydrops fetalis: Series of 51 stillborn fetuses. Pediatr Devel Pathol 5:365–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Rogers BB, Alexander JM et al (2002) Umbilical vein interleukin-6 levels correlate with the severity of placental inflammation and gestational age. Hum Pathol 33:335–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Salafia CM (1997) Placental pathology of fetal growth restriction. Clin Obstet Gynaecol 40:740–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Salafia CM, Cowchock FS (1997) Placental pathology and antiphospholipid antibodies: a descriptive study. Am J Perinatol 14(8):435–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Salafia CM, Pezzullo JC et al (1997) Placental pathology of absent and reversed end-diastolic flow in growth-restricted fetuses. Obstet Gynecol 90:830–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Sander CH (1980) Hemorrhagic endovasculitis and hemorrhagic villitis of the placenta. Arch Pathol Lab Med 104:371–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Sander CM, Gilliland D et al (2002) Livebirths with placental hemorrhagic vasculitis. Interlesional relationships and perinatal outcomes. Arch Pathol Lab Med 126:157–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Sato Y, Benirschke K (2006) Increased prevalence of fetal thrombi in monochorionic-twin placentas. Pediatrics 117(1):e113–e117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Sato Y, Benirschke K (2006) Umbilical arterial thrombosis with vascular wall necrosis: clinicopathologic findings of 11 cases. Placenta 27:715–718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Scott JM (1983) Fibrinous vasculosis in the human placenta. Placenta 4:87–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Sebire NJ, Backos M et al (2002) Placental massive perivillous fibrin deposition associated with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 109:570–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Sebire NJ, Sepulveda W (2008) Correlating placental pathology with ultrasound findings. J Clin Pathol 61:1276–1284Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Sepulveda W, Corral E et al (2003) Umbilical artery aneurysm: prenatal identification in three fetuses with trisomy 18. Ultra Obstet Gynecol 21:292–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Shamonki JM, Salmon JE et al (2007) Excessive complement is associated with placental injury in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 196(2):167.e1–167.e5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Shanklin DR, Scott JS (1975) Massive subchorial thrombohaematoma. (Breus’ mole). Br J Obstet Gynaecol 82:476–487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Shekhawat P, Matern D et al (2005) Fetal fatty acid oxidation disorders, their effect on maternal health and neonatal outcome: Impact of expanded newborn screening on their diagnosis and management. Pediatr Res 57:78R–86RPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Shih I-M, Seidman JD et al (1999) Placental site nodule and characterization of distinctive types of intermediate trophoblast. Hum Pathol 30:687–694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Sienko A, Altshuler G (1999) Meconium-induced umbilical vascular necrosis in abortuses and fetuses: a histopathologic study for cytokines. Obstet Gynecol 94:415–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Silver RK, Dooley SL et al (1987) Umbilical cord size and amniotic fluid volume in prolonged pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 157:716–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Soernes T (1995) Umbilical cord encirclements and fetal growth restriction. Obstet Gynecol 86:725–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Sohan K, Carroll SG et al (2001) Analysis of outcome in hydrops fetalis in relation to gestational age at diagnosis, cause and treatment. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 80:726–730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Soma H, Watanabe Y et al (1996) Chorangiosis and chorangioma in three cohorts of placentas from Nepal, Tibet, and Japan. Reprod Fertil Devel 7:1533–1538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Souter VL, Kapur RP et al (2003) A report of dizygous monochorionic twins. NEJM 349:154–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Steffensen T, Gilbert-Barness E et al (2008) Placental pathology in TRAP sequence: clinical and pathogenetic implication. Fetal Pediatr Path 27:13–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Tan TYT, Sepulveda W (2003) Acardiac twin: a systematic review of minimally invasive treatment modalities. Ultrasound Obstet Gynaecol II 22:409–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Teramo KA, Widness JA (2008) Increased fetal plasma and amniotic fluid erythropoetin concentrations: markers of intrauterine hypoxia. Neonatology 95(2):105–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Torpin R (1965) Amniochorionic mesoblastic fibrous strings and amnionic bands: associated contricting fetal malformations of fetal death. Am J Obstet Gynecol 91:65–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Trainor B, Tubman R (2006) The emerging pattern of hydrops fetalis-incidence, etiology, and management. Ulster Med J 75:185–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Turan S, Miller J et al (2008) Integrated testing and management in fetal growth restriction. Semin Perinatol 32:194–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Venkatesha S, Toporsian M et al (2006) Soluble endoglin contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Nat Med 12:642–649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Vernof K, Benirschke K et al (1992) Maternal floor infarction: Relation to X cells, major basic protein, and adverse perinatal outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 167:1355–1363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Viscardi RM, Sun CC CC (2001) Placental lesion multiplicity: risk factor for IUGR and neonatal cranial ultrasound abnormalities. Early Hum Devel 62:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Waters BL, Ashikaga T (2006) Significance of perivillous fibrin/oid deposition in uterine evacuation specimens. Am J Surg Pathol 30:760–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Weber MA, Nikkels PGJ et al (2006) Co-occurrence of massive perivillous fibrin deposition and chronic intervillositis: case report. Pediatr Dev Pathol 9:234–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Wilkins-Haug L, Quade B et al (2006) Confined placental mosaicism as a risk factor among newborns with fetal growth restriction. Prenat Diagn 26:428–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Wong AE, Sepulveda W (2005) Acardiac anomaly: current issues in prenatal assessment and treatment. Prenat Diagn 25:796–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Wyatt S, Kraus FT et al (2005) The correlation between sampling site and gene expression in the term human placenta. Placenta 26:372–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Yeruchimovich M, Dollberg S et al (1999) Nucleated red blood cells in infants of smoking mothers. Obstet Gynecol 93:403–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Zhang J, Kraus FT et al (1985) Chorioamnionitis: a comparative histologic, bacteriologic, and clinical study. Int J Gynecol Pathol 4:1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Ziska Z, Fait T et al (2008) ABO fetomaternal compatibility poses a risk for massive fetomaternal transplacental hemorrhage. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 87:1011–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Laboratory MedicineSt. John’s Mercy Medical CenterSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Perinatal Biology Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations