Tanzania’s History and Heritage
Tanzania was founded on April 26, 1964, from the union between the former British protectorate of Tanganyika and the Zanzibar archipelago that consists of Unguja, also commonly called Zanzibar Island, and Pemba Island. After 42 years under British rule, Tanganyika gained its independence in 1961 and, similar to the former People’s Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba, remained a sovereign state until the two independent countries signed the Articles of the Union treaty to create the United Republic of Tanzania. The second head of state and former Minister of Natural Resources and Tourism, Ali Hassan Mwinyi (1985–1995), reformed the failing economy from his predecessor Julius Nyerere’s socialist administration by promoting the private sector, “free market forces,” and export-producing businesses.
It was Mwinyi’s reforms that encouraged the growth of tourism and heritage protection. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism (MNRT) adopted the republic’s first National Tourism...
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