Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology

2014 Edition
| Editors: Claire Smith

Textiles and Fabrics: Conservation and Preservation

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0465-2_488

Introduction

A textile is a binary system of fibers or other materials worked into threads. In essence a textile is formed by weaving, but the term can also be used more generically and thus covers flexible products made in other techniques, as, for instance, twining, needle binding, knotting, and knitting. Felting and basketry are also techniques related to textiles. Thus, textiles can be seen as one part of an overall cloth culture, which may include many different materials and techniques (Harris 2012).

Around the world and throughout time, humans have created textiles by exploiting different natural resources and inventing tools and methodologies to change these resources into a viable product. Some areas are rich in traditional textile resources, like materials for fibers, dyes, and tools, but also in less resource plentiful areas, humans have found solutions for fulfilling the demand for textiles.

Definition

Until very recent times, textiles were primarily made from natural...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Andersson Strand, E., K.M. Frei, M. Gleba, U. Mannering, M.-L. Nosch & I. Skals. 2010. Old textiles - new possibilities. European Journal of Archaeology 13: 149-73.Google Scholar
  2. Bender Jørgensen, L. 1992. North European textiles until AD 1000. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Frei, K., R. Frei, U. Mannering, M. Gleba, M.-L. Nosch & H. Lyngstrøm. 2008. Provenance of ancient textiles - a pilot study evaluating the Sr isotope system in wool. Archaeometry 51: 252-76.Google Scholar
  4. - 2009. The Huldremose Iron Age textiles, Denmark: an attempt to define their provenance applying the strontium isotope system. Journal of Archaeological Science 2009: 1-7.Google Scholar
  5. Gillis, C. & M.-L. B. Nosch. (ed.) 2007. First aid for the excavation of archaeological textiles (Ancient Textiles series 2). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  6. Gleba, M. & U. Mannering. 2012. Textiles and textile production in Europe from prehistory to AD 400 (Ancient Textiles series 11). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  7. Harris, S. 2012, From the parochial to the universal: comparing cloth cultures in the Bronze Age. European Journal of Archaeology 15: 61-97.Google Scholar
  8. Mannering, U., G. Possnert, J. Heinemeier & M. Gleba. 2010. Dating Danish textiles and skins from bog finds by means of 14C AMS. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 261-68.Google Scholar
  9. Ørsted Brandt, L., L.D. Tranekjer, U. Mannering, M. Ringgaard, K.M. Frei, E. Willerslev, M. Gleba, M.T.P Gilbert. 2011. Characterising the potential of sheep wool for ancient DNA analyses. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 3: 209-21.Google Scholar
  10. Rast-Eicher, A. 2008. Textilien, Wolle, Schafe der Eisenzeit in der Schweiz (Antiqua 44). Basel: Archäologie Schweiz.Google Scholar
  11. Schmidt, A.L., M.T.P. Gilbert, E. Cappellini & J.V. Olsen. 2011. Identification of animal species in skin clothing from museum collections. ICOM-CC 16 th Triennial Conference Lisbon, Portugal, September 19-23, 2011: 1-8.Google Scholar
  12. Skals, I. 1996. From grave to showcase: modern care for ancient textiles. Archaeological conservation and its consequences. IIC Preprints of the Contribution to the Copenhagen Congress.Google Scholar
  13. Peacock, E.E. 2005. Investigation of conservation methods for a textile recovered from the American Civil War submarine H.L.Hunley (1864), in P. Hoffmann, K. Strætkvern, J.A. Spriggs & D. Gregory (ed.) Proceedings of the 9 th ICOM Group on Wet Organic Archaeological Materials Conference: 497-512. Bremerhaven: WOAM.Google Scholar
  14. Vanden Berghe, I., M. Gleba & U. Mannering. 2009. Towards the identification of dyestuffs in early Iron Age Scandinavian peat bog textiles. Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 1910-21.Google Scholar
  15. Wilson, A.S., R.A. Dixon, H.I. Dodson, R.C. Janaway, A.M. Pollard, B. Stern & D.J. Tobin. 2001. Yesterday's hair - human hair in archaeology. Biologist 48: 213-7.Google Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Banck-Burgess, J. 1999. Hochdorf IV, die Textilfunde aus dem späthallstattischen Fürstengrab von Eberdingen-Hochdorf (Kreis Ludwigsburg) und weitere Grabtextilien aus Hallstatt- und Latenezeitlichen Kulturgruppen. Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  2. Barber, E.J.W. 1991. Prehistoric textiles. The development of cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bender Jørgensen, L. 1986. Forhistoriske textiler i Skandinavien. Prehistoric Scandinavian textiles (Nordiske Fortidsminder ser. B 9). Copenhagen: Det Kgl. Nordiske Oldskriftselskab.Google Scholar
  4. Bjerregaard, L. (ed.) 2007. Chachapoya textiles. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.Google Scholar
  5. Grömer, K. 2010. Prähistorische Textilkunst in Mitteleuropa. Geschichte des Handwerkes und der Kleidung vor den Römern. Wien: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien.Google Scholar
  6. Hald, M. 1980. Ancient Danish textiles from bogs and burials. Copenhagen: National Museum of Denmark.Google Scholar
  7. Möller-Wiering, S. 2011. War and worship. Textiles from 3rd to 4th-century AD weapon deposits in Denmark and northern Germany (Ancient Textiles series 9). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  8. Østergård, E. 2004. Woven into the earth. Textiles from Norse Greenland. Aarhus Universitetsforlag.Google Scholar
  9. Schlabow, K. 1976. Textilfunde der Eisenzeit in Norddeutschland (Göttinger Schriften zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte 15). Neumünster: K. Wachholtz.Google Scholar
  10. Tímár-Balázsy, A. & D. Eastop. 1998. Chemical principles of textile conservation. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.Google Scholar
  11. Walton, P. & G. Eastwood. 1983. A brief guide to the cataloguing of archaeological textiles. London: Institute of Archaeology Publications.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Danish National Research Foundation's Centre for Textile ResearchThe National Museum of DenmarkCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Department of ConservationThe National Museum of DenmarkKgs. LyngbyDenmark