Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology

2014 Edition
| Editors: Claire Smith

Kiik-Koba Grotto: Significance for Paleolithic Studies in East Europe and the Former Soviet Union

  • Yuri E. Demidenko
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0465-2_1868


Kiik-Koba grotto and its finds, including Neanderthal remains, occupy a special place not only in the Crimean Paleolithic. Their significance for Paleolithic studies in East Europe and the former Soviet Union in general is impossible to exaggerate. Its excavations in the 1920s and subsequent publication had a significant influence on trends in Paleolithic archaeology in this part of the Old World for many years (see Bonch-Osmolowski 1940), due to the scientific rigor of Gleb A. Bonch-Osmolowski of then Leningrad. According to Gladilin, his scientific works “entered into the Golden Fund of Soviet and World-wide archaeological science and till now remain exemplary” (Gladilin 1985).

The grotto is situated on the right bank of the Zuya river 120 m above the river’s modern water level, in a rocky massif of Jurassic limestone, within the northern spurs of Dolgorukovskaya Yaila, part of the first ridge of the Crimean Mountains in Eastern Crimea, about 25 km east of Simferopol and...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Bonch-Osmolowski, G.A. 1934. The results of the investigations in the Crimean Paleolithic. The Proceedings of the Second International Congress of the Association for the Quaternary Investigations in Europe 5: 114–83 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  2. - 1940. Paleolithic of Crimea, Part 1: Grotto Kiik-Koba. Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  3. - 1941. Paleolithic of Crimea, Part 2: The hand of the fossil man from Kiik-Koba Grotto. Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  4. Chabai, V.P. 2004. The Middle Paleolithic of Crimea: stratigraphy, chronology, typological variability & Eastern European context. Simferopol: Shlyakh (in Russian).Google Scholar
  5. Chabai, V.P., Y.E. Demidenko & A.I. Yevtushenko. 2000. Paleolithic of the Crimea: methods of investigations and conceptual approaches. Simferopol; Kiev: (in Russian).Google Scholar
  6. Demidenko, Y.E. 2003–2004. Problems of epochal and industrial attribution for Kiik-Koba grotto, lower layer type complexes in the Crimea. Stratum Plus 1: 271–300 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  7. Demidenko, Y.E. (ed.) 2004. Buran-Kaya III rock-shelter, layer B - the etalon find complex for Kiik-Koba type industry of Crimean Micoquian tradition. Complex analysis of flint artifacts. Kiev; Simferopol: Shlyakh (in Russian).Google Scholar
  8. Demidenko, Y.E., J. Richter & T. Uthmeier. (ed.) 2013. Micoquian of Kiik-Koba grotto, lithological layer IV (Crimea): complex re-analyses of 1920s excavation materials. Köln: Institut für Ur- und Frühgeschichte der Universität zu Köln.Google Scholar
  9. Gladilin, V.N. 1966. The distinct types of stone industries in the Mousterian of the Russian Plain and Crimea and their place in the early Paleolithic of the USSR. Proceedings of the VIIth International Congress of Proto- and Prehistorians: 14–18. Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  10. - 1976. The problems of the early Paleolithic of eastern Europe. Kiev: Naukova Dumka (in Russian).Google Scholar
  11. - 1979. On a cultural-chronological attribution of Neanderthal burials at Kiik-Koba grotto, in Y.G. Kolosov (ed.) The investigation of Paleolithic in the Crimea: 67–76. Kiev: Naukova Dumka (in Russian).Google Scholar
  12. - 1985. The early Paleolithic. Archeology of the Ukrainian SSR 1: 12–53 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  13. Smirnov, Y.A. 1991. Mousterian burials in Eurasia. Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).Google Scholar
  14. Trinkaus, E. 2008. Kiik-Koba 2 and Neanderthal axillary border ontogeny. The Anthropological Society of Nippon: 1–6.Google Scholar
  15. Yakimov, V.P. & V.M. Kharitonov. 1979. Towards Crimean Neanderthals problem, in Y.G. Kolosov (ed.) The investigation of Paleolithic in the Crimea: 56–66. Kiev: Naukova Dumka (in Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Crimean Branch, Institute of ArcheologyNational Ukrainian Academy of SciencesSimferopolUkraine