Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology

2014 Edition
| Editors: Claire Smith

European Middle to Upper Paleolithic Transitional Industries: Châtelperronian

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0465-2_1852

State of Knowledge and Current Debates

About 45,000 years ago, anatomically modern humans migrated into Europe, and a few thousand years later Neanderthal populations had completely vanished from Europe. This replacement of the local populations by anatomically modern humans also happened in the rest of Eurasia. It explains why today we are the only human species on the planet when Hominin groups flourished for several million years.

The Châtelperronian industry (Châtelperronien or Castelperronien in French) is considered to be the very last behavioral testimony of Neanderthals in France and northern Spain. For a few millennia, Neanderthals switched to systematic blade production, focused on stone knives that could also be used as projectile points, and in some instances produced domestic bone tools and used black and red pigments as well as personal ornaments.

What appears to be a brief episode, compared to other Late Pleistocene industries, is indeed often considered as a Neanderthal

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut national de recherches archéologiques préventives, Centre Archéologique d’OrléansSaint–Cyr–en–ValFrance
  2. 2.Department of Human EvolutionMax Planck Institute for Evolutionary AnthropologyLeipzigGermany
  3. 3.CNRS, UMR7041– ArsScan/AnTet, MAENanterreFrance