Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2012 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi

Phospholipase A2

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0461-4_97

Synonyms

Historical Background

Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) hydrolyzes the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids to yield fatty acids and lysophospholipids. In the view of signal transduction, the PLA2 reaction has been considered to be of particular importance since arachidonic acid, one of the polyunsaturated fatty acids released by PLA2, is metabolized by cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases to the potent lipid mediators prostaglandins and  leukotrienes, which are often referred to as eicosanoids. In addition, lysophospholipids or its metabolites, such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and platelet-activating factor (PAF), also represent another class of lipid mediators. These lipid mediators exert numerous biological actions through their cognate G protein-coupled receptors on target cells. PLA2has also been implicated in membrane glycerophospholipid remodeling, thereby contributing to cellular...

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References

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lipid Metabolism ProjectThe Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical ScienceSetagaya-kuJapan