Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2012 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi

TLR4, Toll-Like Receptor 4

  • Jayalakshmi Krishnan
  • Sangdun Choi
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0461-4_592


Historical Background

Overproduction of the cytokine profile (cytokine tsunami or storm) can be caused by both infectious and non-infectious diseases. During this process, inflammatory responses are activated either to provide a protective mechanism or to damage tissues when excessively produced cytokines attempt to overwhelm the cause of their production. This system is activated whenever there is a foreign invasion of the body. Foreign invasion is attributed to microbial associated molecules known as Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPS), which activate our immune system through Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) present in the body fluids, cell membranes, and cytoplasm. PRRs not only identify PAMPs, but also molecules released from damaged cells known as Damage Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs). There is a great deal of evidence that DAMPs...

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This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (2012016803).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular Science and TechnologyAjou UniversitySuwonSouth Korea