RhoC was originally identified, together with its homologues RhoA and RhoB, as a Ras-related small GTPase (Madaule and Axel 1985). RhoA, RhoB, and RhoC together comprise the Rho subfamily of small GTPases characterized by their high homology within the Rho GTPase family. The human rhoc gene is on chromosome 1p13.1-p21. The rhoc gene is proposed to originate from a duplication of rhoa during evolution (Boureux et al. 2007). RhoA and RhoC are 93% identical at the protein level; the divergence is mainly concentrated in the so-called hypervariable region of the proteins at the C-terminus. Although multiple Rho subfamily GTPases exist in many eukaryotic organisms, specific RhoC orthologs do not exist outside vertebrates (Boureux et al. 2007). This together with the fact that, like RhoA, when RhoC is overexpressed in cells it induces the formation of actin stress fibers means that its specific functions were not...
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