Several years prior to ERK1 and ERK2 cloning, respectively, in 1990 and 1991 (Boulton et al. 1991), the close correlation between mitogen action and the increased double phosphorylation of two proteins of 41 and 43 kDa on a phosphotyrosine residue and a phosphothreonine/phosphoserine was revealed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (reviewed in Chambard et al. ). Because of the sustained phosphorylation during the critical part of G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, these two proteins known as p41 and p43 were suspected of playing a key role in cell cycle entry. Finally ERK1 was purified and cloned as a protein that phosphorylates microtubules-associated protein2 (MAPK2)...
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