Encyclopedia of Geobiology

2011 Edition
| Editors: Joachim Reitner, Volker Thiel

Sponges (Porifera) and Sponge Microbes

  • Friederike Hoffmann
  • Marie-Lise Schläppy
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9212-1_194


Sponge-associated bacteria; Sponge-associated microbes; Sponge-associated microbiota; Sponge bacteria; Sponge–microbe systems; Sponge symbionts


Sponges are sessile multicellular aquatic animals (Lat. Porifera = bearing pores) whose bodies have a typical body plan which allows water to pass through the animals. Sponges are characterized by a skeleton made of calcareous, siliceous spicules or horny fibers.

Sponge microbes: Bacteria and archaea that live in close and permanent association with sponges, usually in the mesohyl between sponge cells.


Sponges are sedentary benthic organisms found  in shallow waters on tropical coral reefs to the Arctic and the deep sea. Some species, however, are restricted to fresh-water ecosystems. Sponges are characterized by a typical body plan built around a system of water canals and chambers (Figure 1a). Within the chambers, flagellated cells called choanocytes produce a water current that enters the sponge body through...


Sponge Species Sponge Cell Sponge Tissue Siliceous Sponge Sponge Host 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Friederike Hoffmann
    • 1
  • Marie-Lise Schläppy
    • 2
  1. 1.Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular BiologyBergenNorway
  2. 2.Max Planck Institute for Marine MicrobiologyBremenGermany