Encyclopedia of Global Justice

2011 Edition
| Editors: Deen K. Chatterjee

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

  • Wendy C. Hamblet
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9160-5_604

The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was negotiated during the United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment in the wake of World War II (1947). Efforts to negotiate an international trade agreement had begun in 1927 through the League of Nations, and an International Trade Organization (ITO) was proposed in February 1945 by the United Nations Economic and Social Council. The Bretton Woods Conference had introduced the idea of creating an organization to regulate trade, as part of a larger economic recovery plan in the wake of World War II. As governments negotiated the ITO, 15 negotiating states began to carve out the GATT as a means to assure early tariff reductions. The ITO failed in 1950, leaving only the GATT to carry on the objective of reducing barriers to international trade.

GATT 1947 represents the first successful set of general trade regulations; then modifications were made (GATT 1994), until GATT was ultimately subsumed within the framework of the World...

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References

  1. Barton JH, Goldstein JL, Josling TE, Steinberg RH (2008) The evolution of the trade regime: politics, law, and economics of the GATT and the WTO. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  2. Hudson M (2003) Super imperialism: the origin and fundamentals of U.S. world dominance. Pluto, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Irwin DA, Mavroidis PC, Sykes AO (2008) The genesis of the GATT. Cambridge University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Nader R, Brown J (1993) The case against free trade: GATT, NAFTA, and the globalization of corporate power. Earth Island, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  5. Narlikar A (2003) International trade and developing countries: bargaining coalitions in GATT and WTO. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Zeiler TW (1999) Free trade, free world: the advent of GATT, The Luther Hartwell Hodges Series on Business, Society, and the State. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel HillGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wendy C. Hamblet
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Liberal StudiesNorth Carolina Agricultural and Technical State UniversityGreensboroUSA