Current global justice debates typically employ a conception of global citizenship as a form of “multilevel” citizenship. Here the multilevel conception of global citizenship establishes a contrast not only with citizenship based on exclusive membership of a territorial community, but also inclusive membership in a “universal state.” On the one hand, citizenship based on exclusive membership of a territorial community is widely viewed by theorists of global justice as democratically inadequate. It is inadequate in that citizens can no longer exercise reliable democratic control over their life prospects based on such exclusive membership, given the expansion of formal and informal decision-making processes affecting these prospects above the level of the state. On the other hand, fully inclusive membership of a universal state raises the specter of recourse to the persecution of the pluralism of regional and cultural differences, in order to maintain a uniform identity among the...
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