Encyclopedia of the World's Coastal Landforms

2010 Edition
| Editors: Eric C. F. Bird

Nigeria

  • Etop Usoro
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8639-7_171

Introduction

The coast of Nigeria is about 850 km long. It has a hot, wet climate, with an annual rainfall of at least 3,500 mm. There are two rainy seasons (May–July and October–November) and a relatively dry season (NE trade winds) from December to May. During the wet seasons moisture-laden southwest winds from the Atlantic Ocean produce copious rainfall, which makes places like Calabar, Bonny Town and Port Harcourt among the rainiest in the world. Temperature ranges from 20°C to 35°C, and humidity is persistently high, ranging from 70% at Lagos to over 80% at Calabar.

Mean spring tide range increases eastward from Lagos (1.0 m) to the estuaries of the Imo and Cross rivers (2.6 m and 3.0 m respectively). Brackish water spreads far inland, extending to the apex of the Niger delta near Onitsha, about 220 km from the open ocean. Bonny Town on the east coast of the Niger delta has a tide range of 1.9 m.

The Nigerian coast is characterised by strong wave action. The strong southwest...

Keywords

Clay Zircon Depression Sandstone Sedimentation 
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References

  1. Allen JRL (1965a) Late Quaternary Niger delta and adjacent areas. Bull Am Assoc Petrol Geol 49:547–600Google Scholar
  2. Allen JRL (1965b) Coastal geomorphology of eastern Nigeria beach ridge barriers and vegetated tidal flats. Geol Mijnbouw 27:1–21Google Scholar
  3. Guilcher A (1959) Coastal sand ridges and marshes and their environment near Grand Popo and Quidah Dahomey. Proceedings of the 2nd coastal geography conference, Washington, pp 189–212Google Scholar
  4. Olaniyan E, Afiesimama EA (2003) Understanding ocean surges: A case study of the Victoria Island bar beach African Marine ScienceLagos.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Etop Usoro
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Calabar Nigeria