The study of learning, and its outcome – memory, involves the effort to identify how we acquire internal representations of experience, how these representations are stored, and how they are expressed in thoughts, feelings, and actions. The scientific study of learning and memory study evolved separately in major academic disciplines of psychology, biology, and clinical medicine. Psychologists have most prominently focused on rigorously designed experimental studies that have generated a large body of information about how information is encoded, remembered, and forgotten. Psychological research on animal memory focused on discovering universal rules of learning in distinctive training protocols, including classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning. Psychological research on human memory has revealed an organization of the structure of memory, different stages of learning and memory, including short-term memory, working memory, long-term...