Encyclopedia of Sciences and Religions

2013 Edition
| Editors: Anne L. C. Runehov, Lluis Oviedo

Intelligence

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8265-8_587

Related Terms

Description

Intelligence and the various methods by which it is assessed have progressively evolved during the past 150 years. A brief overview of the contributions of intelligence theorists and researchers speaks of the influence of these scientists on the current understanding of intelligence and its recent developments. An early intelligence researcher, Binet, believed that intelligence was comprised of comprehension, inventiveness, direction, and criticism. In 1927, Spearman suggested that intelligence could be divided into a general factor, pervading all types of intellectual practice, and specific factors, which involve specific tasks (Spearman 1927). The idea of one unifying factor representing intelligence across all domains...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

References

  1. Flanagan, D. P., Ortiz, S. O., & Alfonso, V. C. (2007). Essentials of cross-battery assessment (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  2. Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  3. Kaufman, A. S. (2009). IQ testing 101. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  4. Pearson, A. (2009). Intelligence more heritable than previously thought. New Scientist, 201, 12–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Spearman, C. (1927). The abilities of man. London: Macmillian.Google Scholar
  6. Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.). (2000). Handbook of intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Sternberg, R. J., Kaufman, J. C., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2008). Applied intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Thurstone, L. L. (1936). A new conception of intelligence. Educational Record, 17, 441–450.Google Scholar
  9. Vernon, P. E. (1971). The structure of human abilities. London: Methuen.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Learning Research InstituteCalifornia State University at San BernardinoSan BernardinoUSA